Meaning, Nature, Subject Matter and Emergence of Sociology
The study of human behavior and its impact on society is the focus of sociology, a social science. This course examines a wide range of topics, including social structures, institutions, organizations, and relationships, as well as how these factors influence individuals and societies. Sociology is a broad field that examines a variety of social issues, such as inequality, poverty, crime, health, education, and others.
There are a number of fields whose contributions to sociology are interdisciplinary, such as psychology, economics, political science, anthropology, etc. Sociology focuses on understanding human behavior in society and its effects. As a result, sociology helps shape public policy and inform decision-making in a wide range of areas by identifying patterns and trends in human behavior that can be used to predict future social outcomes.
At the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century, sociology emerged as a discipline in Europe. In this period, European thinkers grappled with rapid changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution and the Enlightenment. Sociology was founded by Auguste Comte, a French philosopher who was credited with coining the term. They began to examine how these changes affected human behavior and social institutions. In order to understand and improve the world, sociology must focus on studying society and social relationships.
There are several sub-disciplines within sociology, including:
This sub-discipline focuses on the study of individual behavior and interactions between people in small groups. It explores how people interact with each other in their everyday lives, including in families, friendships, and romantic relationships. It also examines the role of institutions such as schools, workplaces, and religious organizations in shaping individual behavior.
- Macro-sociology :
The purpose of this subdiscipline is to study large-scale social structures and institutions. It examines how social institutions such as government, economy, and media influence individual behavior and society as a whole. In addition, it discusses how social movements, globalization, and cultural change affect society as a whole.
- Cultural sociology:
This sub-discipline focuses on the study of culture and cultural phenomena. Besides exploring how mass media and new technologies have affected culture and how cultural change occurs, it also examines how cultural values, beliefs, and symbols influence individual and collective behavior.
- Demographic sociology :
The study of population patterns, including migration patterns, fertility patterns, mortality patterns, and age distributions in a population, is the focus of this sub-discipline.
- Environmental sociology :
Human behavior and the environment are the subjects of this subfield. In addition to examining how people interact with nature, it also discusses how industrialization, urbanization, and other forms of development have affected it. In addition, it explores people’s responses to environmental issues, such as climate change and natural disasters.
It has played a significant role in many aspects of life and has made numerous important contributions to our understanding of the world. Social integration and suicide rates were studied in the early 20th century by sociologists such as Emile Durkheim. It was found that suicide rates were higher among people living alone or isolated from their communities, who had low levels of social integration. Social support and community involvement are important factors in promoting mental health, and this work helped to raise awareness about this.