Category Archive Sociology

Characteristics of Social Groups | Sociology

social groupCharacteristics | Nature of Social Groups

Social Group is an aggregate collection of persons having a common interest and interacts with each other and share similar characteristics and a sense of unity.The nature of social group is either formal or informal. When there are rules and regulations, scheduled meeting times, official roles assigned to members then it is called formal social group which is mainly created by the organization. Informal social groups lack formality and there may be unwritten values which governs the interaction of the members of the group (group of friends, family, etc.).Some of the important characteristics of social groups are as follows:


  • Collection of Individuals:

Social group is the collection of individuals which are the base of social groups. Just as a college or any other institutions cannot be imagined without students and teachers, etc. a group cannot be imagined without people. People are the most important for any group.

  • Interaction among Members:

Interaction is the basis of social life and in every social group there must have regular interaction among its members. Only having a collection of individuals does not make a social group if the members do not interact with each other.

  • Mutual Awareness:

Just gathering of people cannot form a social group. Mutual relations are considered essential for the formation of a social group. The members inter-related to each other and they are aware of one another. Their behavior is determined by their mutual recognition.

  • We feeling:

The sense of we-feeling is most important for any social group. This helps to create group unity among the members and also develops sympathy and co-operation among the group members which is necessary for the smooth running of the group functions.

  • Common interests and Group Unity or Solidarity:

People generally form groups in order to fulfill common interests and needs. An individual may join several such groups, as political group, religious group, economic group, educational group, and so on, in order to fulfill her varied and objectives which are identical to other members of that group .The common interest ties the members of a group and they form a sense unity. By virtue of such sense, members of develop loyalty or a feeling of sympathy among themselves.

  • Group Behavior:

Group behavior is the social process by which people relate and respond to each other and perform their respected roles as member of the group. Group behavior is guided by a basic unity of purpose and identity of interest. As being a group member all the members in a group behave more or less in a similar way for the achievements of interests and goals.

  • Group Norms:

Rules and norms vary from group to group. Thus Group norms like customs, folkways, mores, traditions, conventions (rules), laws etc. which may or may not be in written form, should be followed by the member of the group and every group has its own means of rewarding, correcting and punishing people if they break the values and norms.

  • Size of the Group:

Every social group is different in their sizes. A group may be small as a dyad or big as a political party. In small groups people seem to be more unified, and in large group people seem to be less unified and satisfied.

  • Groups are Dynamic:

Groups are Dynamic in nature. Groups experience changes either because of internal or external pressures or forces. For instance, although some groups like families are permanent in nature, they gradually go under changes since old members die and new ones are born.

  •  Influence on Personality:

Every human being learns the culture like language, norms, beliefs etc. from the members of his group which help him/her to adapt in the environment. Social group provides opportunities of interactions for its members where they can sharpen and flourish their talent and skills.

  • Stability:

Stability is one of the important characteristics of social group. Groups are permanent or temporary in nature. Stable groups are family, school group etc. and unstable groups are like the crowd, etc.

Source: Fundamentals of Sociology (Buddha Publication)



Business Management and Sociology

sociRelationship between Business Management and Sociology | Sociology

Business management is the process of management of different business activities to run the business smoothly. Sociology is comprehensively the study of human behavior, structure, institutions and development of society.

Sociology provides educational background to understand their employees and customers. Business leaders and entrepreneurs having a good knowledge of sociology are able in anticipating customers’ needs and are able to respond to employees’ problems.

Having a good knowledge of sociology helps business managers or administrators to develop their analytical thinking and capabilities. Sociological knowledge helps business leaders and various human resource managers in handling or dealing with their employees and customers in their workplace. If the business leaders and human resource managers have knowledge of sociology then it makes them aware of the cultural and social aspects that shape an individual so that each and every employee are respected as they know about their background and helps to avoid misunderstanding.

A business manager having sociological knowledge understand that certain phenomenon creates conditions that influence groups of people. So the business leader keeps in mind about the factors and tries to enrich their business by analyzing their society. For e.g. if birth rate of a country drop then the obviously the country must contain more aged people in a certain time. Analyzing this condition helps business managers to produce goods for old aged peoples.

A good relation with public is most important for any business manager. Understanding sociology helps every business manager to establish and maintain good public relations. Having a good sociological knowledge helps the business managers to understand which actions by the company will affect its customers based on their cultural and economic background. So, the business manager always keep in mind about their customers’ cultural and economic background and manufacture products or take decision on favor of their customers. This helps in maintaining a good public relation.

Thus, having a proper knowledge of sociology plays a vital role in business management. This helps them to get knowledge about people’s culture including their buying habits, income levels or their quality of life as a whole.

Source: Fundamentals Of Sociology (Buddha Publication)


Postmodernism|Assumptions| Sociology

socioKey Assumptions of Postmodernism| Sociology

In the world , many of the fields have been influenced by postmodern thinking art, architecture,philosophy and sociology. Postmodernism is a general and wide-ranging term which is applied to literature ,art ,philosophy,architecture,fiction,and cultural and literary criticism,among others.Post modernism relies on concrete experience over abstract principles ,knowing always that the outcome of one’s own experience will necessarily be fallible and relative,rather than certain and universal.To be specific ,the following key assumptions are made:

  • Postmodernism assumes that there is no underlying objective reality that means no prime objective  reality (Either physical or spiritual).
  • Postmodernism assumes that  everything is subjective and relative to individual views , perception and values which varies from one person to another person.
  • Postmodernism assumes that there is no absolute preference point to judge between right and wrong; true or false ; real and unreal ; good and evil , etc .
  • Postmodernism assumes that  universe is an open system ,hence natural laws are not fixed or we can say reality and time are not fixed realities.
  • Postmodernism assumes that there is no knowledge apart from language ie; human beings construct  meaning through language and may differ from one person to another.
  • Postmodernism assumes that  unlike modernism it is open ,unbounded and  concerned with process and becoming.

Source: Fundamentals Of Sociology ( Buddha Publication)

Author:  Laxman P. Bhandari



Changing Pattern of Marriage | Sociology

marriagesChanging Pattern of Marriage in Nepalese Societies | Sociology

The world is changing  ,it has reached to industrial society from pre-industrial societies. The advancement in technology ,urbanization ,industrialization ,law and education  is leading to change in patterns of marriage throughout the world.


The following are the changing patterns of marriage experienced in many Nepalese societies and somewhere in the world too.

  1. Change in the form of marriage:

Due to the advancement and development, the traditional  form of marriage are not practiced (Polygamy,Polyandry) or strictly prohibited. Peoples are giving priority to monogamous marriages as they have lots of advantages and is universally practiced.

      2. Change in the economic role of women:

In earlier societies women do not have much economic role as they were dependent in their families .But  ,today women have achieved a great economic independence ie; they have become property owners ,got a qualitative education, become leaders leading to change in the pattern of marriage.

       3. Change in the age of marriage:

In earlier societies, there was no so much laws, rules and regulations which lead to child marriage as there was no particular age for marriage. But today child marriage was completely forbidden by law and  a boy below 21 years and a girl below 18 years cannot marry without their parent ‘s consent.

       4.  Remarriage:

Nowadays , we can see lots of case of divorce leading to remarriage. Males seem to remarry more often as compared to the females and widower or divorced men often marry women considerably younger than they are.

       5. Delayed Marriage:

Nowadays ,people do not become hurry for marriage. Firstly, they want to get good education and want to make their career good, then only they think of marriage. In earlier societies , women were exoected to marry after completing their high school but nowadays womens are exploring themselves.Because of this people generally marry late.

       6. Cohabition:

A compared to earlier societies,nowadays people seem to very practical regarding the  issue of marriage . Cohabition is an situation or we can say contract in which a couple live together  involving in emotional as well as sexual intimate relationship without officially getting married. If they are compatible with each other they  will get married in future and if not compatible they will not. For eg: Living relationship.





Polygyny is the form of marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time. This type of marriage was mostly practiced in ancient civilizations. Still in some societies like Korea, Muslims can have four wives at a time if they want. This type of marriage is practiced in Nagas of India, Crow Indians, Eskimo tribes, Hidasta of North America, etc.


Types of Polygyny:

  1. Sororal Polygyny:

Sororal is a type of polygyny form of marriage in which one man marries two or more wives which are related as sisters.

      2.  Non-Sororal Polygyny:

Non-Sororal is a type of polygyny form of marriage in which one man marries two or more wives which are not related as sisters.

Causes Of Practicing Polygyny

  • Practice of polygyny marriage becomes common in the society where there are more woman as compared to men which creates imbalance in the sex ration.
  • People practice polygyny marriage for economic benefit. In some of the African Tribes like longas and Thongas people practice polygyny form of marriage thinking that women can contribute in family income.
  • Many people practice polygyny marriage to enjoy sex life with multiple wives because sex relation with a woman during her menstrual ,pregnancy and lactation periods are tabooed in many societies.
  • Many people practice polygyny marriage because of childlessness of the first wife.

Disadvantages Of Polygyny:

  • Having more wives leads to more no. of children which increases economic burden on the head of the family as he has to support in family.
  • In this type of marriage, the children cannot be looked after properly because too many of them are to be looked after.
  • In this type of marriage, there occurs jealousy among the wives and their children leading to conflict in family.
  • Because of the conflict, it destroys family happiness.
  • In these type of marriage the women possess lower position in the family as there are more no. of women.


Monogamy | Advantages Of Monogamy | Sociology

monogamy Monogamy | Advantages Of Monogamy | Sociology

Monogamy is a form of marriage in which one man marries one woman.It is the most widespresd and civilized form of marriage. Aristotle has recommended only monogamous marriage.

A believer of monogamy essentially expects his/her partner to love with him/her and cooperate with him/her to make a life.He/she also expects to be the only one that his/her partner has kids with.This in turn implies that the partner should not be sexually involved with anyone outside the relationship.

Advantages of monogamy

1)Universally Practicable:

Monogamy gives one –to-one ratio so can provide marietal opportunity and satisfaction to all individuals.This form of marriage is universally practicable in different countries.

2)Economically better suited:

No man having ordinary income can think of practicing polyandry as he has very low income .So, monogamy can adjust itself with poverty.

For e.g: Even though Koran permits a Muslim to have four wives at a time but no ordinary Muslim can think of marrying four wives.

3)Promotes better Understanding between husband and Wife:

Monogamy produces highest type of love and satisfaction between husband and wife. It contributes to family peace ,solidarity and happiness.

For e.g.Vatsayana an authority on “Kama Sutra” remarked , “At best a man can only please one women physically , mentally and spiritually .Therefore ,a man who enters into marriage relations with more than one women, voluntarily courts unhappiness and misery”.

4)Contributes to Stable family and sex life:

Monogamy is more stable and long-lasting and is free from conflicts that are commonly found in polyandrous and polygynous families. It does not give opportunity for having extra-marietal sex relationships because sex relations are more strictly prohibited.

5)Helps to better Socialisation:

Since, husband and wives have better understanding , they can give greater attention to the socialisation of their children. Children are well looked after and the parents can give special attention to them.


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