Adventures in English vol 1

Category Archive Adventures in English vol 1

Adventures In English Vol I


Unit One:Introduction
Unit Two :Ancient Tales
Unit Three:Education
Unit Four:Animal Stories
Unit Five:Television
16.Great Scott! Gadzooks!
Unit Six:Crosscultural Bridges
Unit Seven:Anthropology




  Literal Comprehension:

The Yanomamo is one of the most aggressive , war loving and male oriented societies in the world.The body of adult males or females are covered with the wounds and scars.Wives have to obey their husbands without any question.In the chest pounding duels, the guest hit on the chest of the host with fist as hard as he can.But later the host also hits the guest back on the chest.The more one receives, the more one can hit back.In the side slapping duel, the opponent hits with the open hands just bellow the ribs.In the club fight, the competitor sticks on the head with a pole.The spear fight is the most dangerous.The fight against the relatives and enemies is quite common.The alliance of the Yanomamo depends on the military power. They pass most of time by fighting.


This essay  clearly expresses the lifestyle of the Yanomamo people.It shows that their life is full of struggle. In order to survive they have to keep on fighting.This passage shows the relation between male and female in the male dominated society. The American Indian tribesman also known as Yanomamo believes on the male supremacy. Through this passage the writer presents the views of two different male and female writers who commonly consider the complete violation of women in the fierce group of people. The beatings and sufferings from men are considered as the sing of love for women. The character and body image of the writer shows the complete differentiation from the normal groups of people.


  • He has quoted chignon, a male researcher, whose attitude may be a bit biased to women and he has also quoted the views of Judith Sapiro, a female researcher. Thus the writer has tried to give a balance view in this essay.
  • However some question arise:
  • Do such societies still exist on the face of the earth?
  • Why don’t human right activists intervene in such societies?
  • Do women really expect atrocities from their husbands there?


 By reading this assay I have come to know many things about male oriented society. In such societies, women and girls are always abused.I become sad when I imagine the life of the Yanomamo people, especially women who always face violence.


The Cabuliwallah | Four Levels | Adventures In English Vol

The Cabuliwallah|Four Levels



Literal Comprehension:
 A Cabuliwallah named Rahaman reached near the house of the writer. He was a peddler and sold seasonal goods. Mini, the five years old daughter of the writer, saw him. The writer was busy on writing his story. When Mini called him, he came towards her. When Cabuliwallah came towards her house, Mini got afraid and went to her mother.But, the writer called her and introduced with Rahaman to remove her fear from her mind. The Cabuliwallah gave nuts and raisins to her. Then, Cabuliwallah became a regular visitor to Mini’s home. They became good friends.Rahaman sold seasonal goods. Once he had sold a Rampuri sawl to a costumer on credit. But when he went to collect his money, the costumer didn’t give the money. It made Rahaman so angry that he stabbed the costumer with knife.Rahaman was charged for attempting murder and was sent to jail for long time. When he was released from the jail, he directly went to the writer’s house. There was a ceremony in the house. Mini was going to get married.At first, the writer didn’t allow him to see her. But Rahaman gave nuts and raisins for her and also showed a hand print of his daughter from his pocket, and told that he also has a daughter like Mini in his house. Understanding a father’s feeling towards his daughter, the eyes of the writer filled up with tears. He called Mini who was in wedding dress.Rahaman was surprised to see mini grown up. He remembered his own daughter and expressed the concerns about her. The writer got sentimental and offered hundred rupees to Rahaman by reducing some of the festivities like bands and electric lights. But the writer got happy to realize that he was helping a father to meet his daughter.
 Interpretation :
The writer may be trying to show the attitude of peoples towards the foreigners and poor peddler. Although the Cabuliwallah is very simple and honest, writer’s wife suspects him as a child lifter, also tries to cheat him by not paying his money.The story also shows the plight of the poor peopleThe story teaches us not to lose temper.
 This story also makes a strong case for humanity. The writer cuts off the wedding expenses and helps the Cabuliwallah.
Critical Thinking:
Although this story is full of the feeling of humanity, some ideas of the writer are skeptical.
  • Does a man leave his children freely with a stranger?
  • Does a peddler give things to others children freely every time?
  • Does the Cabuliwallah stab the costumer?
  • Can we find anyone who helps others by cutting off weeding expenses?


Before reading this story, I also feared foreigners . But this story changed my attitude towards them. I know that all the people of the world are brothers and sisters.This story also grew a sense of help in my minds towards poor and needy people. Before reading this story I neglected such people. But the kindness of the writer towards the Cabuliwallah gave me a good lesson.




  Stickeen-Four Levels


  stickeen_picture_book_cover                                              Author:John Muir

Literal Comprehension:

In the summer of 1880 the narrator John Muir was exploring alska region with his friend Mr.Young.Mr. Young brought a dog with him named Stickeen which was given by some Iris people to Mr.Young’s wife.The dog was so small like a little baby.The narrator didn’t like the idea of taking the dog with them as it was very small but after the huge request of his friend he takes the dog Stickeen to  icy cold region of Alaska. The creature proves to be a interesting company in the journey. It always followed the narrator even leaving its own master. It never complains. It did not love anyone and did not allow anyone to do so. It did not leave the narrator when he was making the most measurable journey in his life. That day he left the comp early in the raring morning with breakfast in his pocket. The dog some how follow him. They were walking in the snow. There were many crevasses on the way. The narrator crossed them carefully but the dog was moving like the flying cloud. It did not notice any danger. After reaching the end, they were returning to the camp. On the way they were trapped on the island surrounded by crevasses (holes). The only way to cross it was Sliver Bridge. The narrator cut notches (V shape holes) on the bridge. After he crossed the bridge, he again had to cut the holes at the other end to climb up. After he reached the other side he called the dog. But it did not come because it had wisely sensed the danger. When the writer repeatedly threatened to leave it there, it very carefully crossed the bridge. And afterwards it was so happy that it cried and danced and dashed. From that day on, it likes to be a close to the narrator. It might have thought that the narrator was its god


This story might be trying to tell us about the human and animals relationship.It also tells that experience teaches us more than any thing else. The dog Stickeen changed completely after it successfully cross the silver bridge and save its life. It may also be interpreted to mean that there are many things which we find in animals and human beings equally. Friendship and gratitude are equally found in animals.

Critical Thinking:

This beautiful story has many points which are normally unacceptable to us. 
  • Why do people explore such remote place by putting their lives in danger? 
  • Why the Stickeen followed the narrator instead of his master?
  • Don’t they die of cold when they are wet in the icy cold region? Otherwise this story is really impressive. It makes us feel as if we are with the writer making the journey.


After reading this story I came to know so many things about Alaska. I also learned that beauty in nature and danger are interwoven that experience makes one perfects is true even in the case of animals.

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KING DAVID’S CRIME | Four Levels | Adventures In English Vol I

davidKING DAVID’S CRIME| Four Levels | Adventures In English Vol I

Literal Comprehension:

As king, David was in a position to give orders and know that they would be carried out. When David saw Bathsheba, he was attracted to her because “the woman was very beautiful.” (2 Samuel 11:2) Bathsheba’s husband Uriah was away from home when this happened, fighting with King David’s troops against the enemy Ammonites.King David manipulated Uriah’s orders, bringing him home from the battle in hopes that he would spend time with Bathsheba so that the pregnancy would appear to be his. When Uriah refused to visit his home while his fighting companions were away from theirs. Finally, King David sent Uriah back to the battle, giving him a letter to be delivered to Joab, the commander. The letter read, “Set Uriah in the forefront of the hardest fighting, and then draw back from him, that he may be struck down, and die.” As commander of the troops, Joab should have been the one to decide the placement of troops. King David’s specific orders for the placement of one particular fighter ignored Joab’s strategic plans, forcing Joab to place Uriah in an unsupportable position to cover the king’s indiscretion with Bathsheba. The only reason for the crime against Uriah was King David’s need to hide his crime against Uriah’s wife, Bathsheba.
This story might be trying to tell us that every one is the victim of passion. The rulers use their special power and enjoy it, but other persons suppress this desire. It may also be interpreted to mean that every is excusable in politics. The king is free to do what ever he likes. But an ordinary citizen is punished if he or she does not helps rulers to satisfy their whims.
Critical Thinking:
When I read this story, I had wrong impression of the Bible. Aren’t their other gods’ characters in the story of Bible?  Does king David stand for a good king? If he is a good king, what are the other ruler’s views? If we read this story as a political story regardless of morality, we can appreciate it. It truly describes human weakness. Even the king is not free from passion.
This story has help me to understand myself better. It also taught me that I should not follow the example of a great person if his action is bad. Absolute power corrupts the leadership of the rulers. If the rulers are corrupt the whole society decay. Now I know why my country has not improved. Immoral and undemocratic politician have used their power for their personal benefits, not for the development of the country. There for the condition of my country becoming worse every day.

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Great Scott! Gadzooks!

Great Scott! Gadzooks!-Four Levels

Roald-Dahl                                               Author-Roald Dahl   

Literal Comprehension:
We should not allow our children to go near the Television set. If possible we should not install it at all. In nearly every home child watch TV until their eyes get tired. They sit and watch TV until they are spellbound and absolutely drunk with very bad things. We allow them to watch TV because they will not fight and do naughty things and they allow us to do our work freely. But we have never supposed that TV will kill their senses and imagination, that they do not understand the imaginary world and that they can not think at all. If you take the set away, they will be unhappy at first and then they will start reading good books as children in the past would do.
This poem might be trying to tell us that, the TV set has prevented children from reading books. It may also be interpreted to mean that parents are solely responsible for spoiling their children. they have thought of their convenience alone. They have never studied the bad inflect of TV programs on their children
Critical Thinking:
This poem has beautifully presented the trouble of every parent. It is true that children don’t read any good books a part from their text book. But the poem has ignored the advantage children get by watching TV. When classic was televised they will be interested in watching more such serious. When they don’t get such serials they borrow classics from the library and read them. More over TV helps them to imaging much more clearly. How does it kill their imagination Del.?
This poem has help me to understand why children passed most of their time before their TV set. It hypnotizes them. I also came to know why the younger generation thinks differently. They have taken in so many good as well as bad things from different sources including TV. Modern culture has been changing rapidly because of television.

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A Fight Between a Lion And a Crocodile

A Fight Between a Lion and a Crocodile-Four Levels

Lion-and-Crocodile-300x234                                                       Author-H.Rider Haggard

Literal Comprehension:

It was late evening. The narrator and his friend being to sleep drowsily on the bank of the river. They could hear different kind of roaring sound. Job told them to look to the water toward them. They sow the lion’s signing eyes as one of was 15 feet away. Leo fired at the lions and see died. A fully grown male was to step behind her. Suddenly there was a rush and disturbance of the water. The lion uttered a roar. A crocodile had cut him by the leg. The lion pull the crocodile on to the bank and clawed its head, and one of its eyes was turn. Both of them were struggle fiercely. The lion’s body up to the hive was in the crocodile’s jaws. The lion clawed the crocodile’s throat a part. The lion felt on the crocodile’s back and died . After a while the crocodile also died.


This story might be trying to tell us that there are many more wonderful things in the world of nature. All living things are closely related to their environment, and are equally important in their own place. The lion is the king of the jungle, but the crocodile can defeat him in the water, which is not the kingdom of the lion.

Critical Thinking:

There are many things in the story, which seem unbelievable.
  •  How can people try to fall as sleep when they hear the rearing sound?
  •  How can people feel safe in such a place?
  •  Can a crocodile is strong enough to grip a lion? 
Since this story seems to be realistic, we have to accept many things without questions.


After reading this story I am fully convince that all animals are equally important in the eco –system. Every animals has its importance in its own place. But if it goes to the place to other animals, it will be defeated. There for every living things identifies its habit act and lives accordingly.

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Curbing The One Eyed Monster

Curbing The One-Eyed Monster-Four levels               Television                 

   Author-Fiona C.Jenkins

Literal Comprehension:

Television stations are owned by very rich people. They do not tell us the truth. Their main purpose is to handover us to advertisers as long as possible. Ordinary people are tired of protesting against them. The easiest way to make our home TV free or to put our TV set on the curb. We may missed very useful programs and become outsiders. But we can use the spare time to do something really valuable. We can live a real life. We can make our self familiar with the highest quality in art, music and literature. But TV present us the lower quality of all these and reality in fragments and thus misguides us. We don’t know what reality is? We do what the advertiser or rich people want us to do. We fill their pockets with our money. So, the effective way to save us is to boycott TV otherwise we will be getting misinformation. We have been compelled to feel that our natural life is worse and therefore we being to live artificially.


This assay tell us that rich people and bigness man have made us puppets. They will use us the way they like. They will use us for their own advantages by misguiding us. They will never give us anything of the best quality. Therefore we have to protect ourselves from their exploitation (misuse).

Critical Thinking:

Although the writer has presented some of the advantage of TV, he has emphasized its bad aspects. He has made us escapists. Instead of fighting against the rich people, he wants us to stop watching TV. If we do so we will missed many good programs. If every one throws their TV sets where shall we go to watch the historical events? Can’t we make a choice and watch only good programs?


This assay has help me to understand many of the things which I did not understand before. Now I have understood how easily people imitate mannerism and why people watch TV. They don’t like to be outsiders. I also know why people use the things advertise on TV. They want to be number one.

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Marriage is a private affair

Marriage is a Private Affair-Four Levels   

1024px-Chinua_Achebe_-_Buffalo_25Sep2008_crop      Author: Chinua Achebe

Literal Comprehension:

This suggestive story “Marriage is a Private Affair” is written by famous Nigerian writer Chinua Achebe. In this story, he has described about one marriage relation show marriage as a private affair. The subject matter of this story is love and marriage between Nnaemeka and Nene where Nnaemeka is from Ibo tribe and Nene is from other tribe. He did engagement and started to live with at Lagos city. When they were engaged Nene was asking to send the message about their engagement to his father Okeke but Nnaemeka did not do that because he was familiar with his father’s nature and his culture. According to his culture, the son of Ibo tribe has to marry the girl of their own tribe arranged by father. If the arrangement is done by the father it will be acceptable from all the members of that community. If the arrangement is done by sons themselves with the girl of different tribe, it would make father very angry and creates the tension in family. So, he planned to tell his father when he went home on leave. But he did not tell to Nene that his father had already chosen a girl Ugoye of his own tribe.
Nnaemeka went home on leave and told his father that he could not marry Ugoye because he was engaged to marry with Nene who is a good Christian and teacher in Lagos City whom he loves. After hearing this Okeke became very angry because according him and his rituals Christian woman should not speak/teach. Then Okeke asked her name and when he knew that she was the girl of other tribe but not of Ibo tribe, he became silent which silent was more dangerous than his angry speech. Okeke tried to persuade his son Nnaemeka not to marry with Nene. But when Okeke was sure that his son would not obey him, he did not speak with his son after ordering to go away from home and gave up as a last. When Nnaemeka went to Lagos, the neighbors came to Okeke to give sympathy about his son’s behavior. Different old people and gentlemen encouraged Okeke to go against his behavior and suggested to check his son with witch doctor by saying his mind is not right. But Okeke denied that idea.
After six months Nnaemeka showed his father’s letter to Nene. Nnaemeka had sent their weeding picture to his father. His father had returned to them by damaging the picture of Nene. Nene sobbed when she found her picture damaged. He consoled her by saying that his father is a good natured man and that one day all would be right. Nene and Nnaemeka were living happier and more comfortable life in Lagos. Everybody except Nnaemeka’s father Okeke in Ibo tribe knew about that because Okeke never liked to talk about his son and never let other to talk about his son. With a great effort, he was able to forget his son because almost 8 years went by not having any contact between Okeke and his son Nnaemeka. Nene had given birth to two sons within that time. Nene wrote a serious letter to Okeke telling that his two grandsons were enthusiastic / inspiring to see their grandfather. She had requested him in letter to allow them to see him and also told that she would not come to village where Nnaemeka would come with grandsons. When Okeke read the letter of Nene, the idea of grandson melted him and he soon realized his mistake not giving invite to his son and daughter-in law for eight years in to their home. He regretted for his behavior. The sky was clouded and started to rain. He could not sleep that night. He saw vision that two grandsons were waiting outside in the rain asking to come in. tears came in his eyes. Mentally Okeke wanted to invite Nene’s family. So he had vague fear that he might die before giving them their proper right.


This story “Marriage is a Private Affair” might be trying to tell us that married life becomes happier and joyful if it is done privately and in accordance with personal choice. Along with it, the writer wants to say that if the society is superstitious and narrow minded, it brings us tension and problems. It is not necessary to get married within own culture like Ibo in this story to live happy married life. As Okeke did not accept his son’s private marriage with Nene, he got 8 years tension, misunderstanding, conflicts and sadness which are the result of narrow mindedness and superstitious belief/traditional belief. Here the writer wants to suggest that we should be careful, qualified and independent then personal choice of marriage can be the best example of marriage to live happily.

Critical Thinking:

Thought the writer’s focus is to show private affair of marriage as the best example of marriage to live with joy and happiness, he has not described anything about the arrange marriage which has its own value too. So, some of the points which are described in this story makes me disagree. 
Here the private marriage life of Nene and Nnaemeka is shown as one of the happier and joyful life. Why did Nene write letter to Okeke, father-in-Law, saying that their two sons want to meet him? Can’t we say that they were not happy? Can a private marriage always create happiness? Presently, we can see that private affair of marriage is bringing lots of problem in the world rather than arranged marriage. More events of divorce are occurring in private marriage cases. In such condition, how can we regard private marriage as the best example? When Okeke could not convince his son Nnaemeka not to marry with Nene, he completely rejected his son. How can a father reject a son due to his misunderstanding of marriage?


After reading this story, I came to know that superstitious and back-warded societies are not only in Nepal, these people are everywhere else. This story made me to remember the incident when I wanted to have inter-cast marriage with my present wife. She belongs to Newar family and me from Brahman family. We were in private affair at that time but our both family came to know our relation. As they were superstitious, both families denied our relation saying that we have different culture but we didn’t give up and decided that convincing both family, we would get marry and enjoy the happy life. Finally, we both became independent and decided to get marry which was also accepted by both families. Now, everybody is happy seeing us that we are enjoying our private marriage life.

1.Who in this story sees marriage as a private affair? Who does not? Why?

Ans: The short story ‘Marriage is a Private Affair’ by Chinua Achebe is a tale illustrating two stratas of community life. It seems mainly to be delineated in this instance by age, juxtaposing the senior generation with its strict mores and cultural traditions and a younger generation which doesn’t value these ideas, perceiving them to have less value than their ‘elders and betters’ do. Marriage has changed in many societies across the world, and now, in some cultures, people don’t even bother with an expensive ceremony or registering a paper document. They are content, for cultural, economic or social reasons to commit to a ‘partner’ and need no ‘blessing’ (or interference!) from elders, pastors or peers. Perhaps today’s women are more financially independent and that has a bearing – they like to think they can manage relationships for themselves if they have a ‘modern’ helpful and understanding partner. Consequently, these couples believe their marriage or relationship is ‘a private affair.’
In Chinua Achebe’s story the younger generation is illustrated by as Nnaemeka and the elders by Okeke. Traditional cultural views of marriage are shown as being rigidly restrictive and inflexible and are spotlighted against the foil of the much more valuable freedom of the individual. The antidote to all this conflict, hostility and interference is shown to be love, which is more than a match for dictatorial arbitrary social rules and conventions. The ancient theme of parental choice of partner is suggested, and as in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet, the painful dilemma of the individual’s choice of partner is contrasted. This theme is introduced in the very first lines of dialogue in the short story where the young bridegroom is dubious about the reception his marriage news will get. It is an interesting story because at other times Achebe has stated his respect for the wisdom of older people and highlighted his obvious respect for them ;
‘When old people speak it is not because of the sweetness of words in our mouths; it is because we see something which you do not see.’
One wonders if today’s elders will watch and wait, but still be there with their wise eyes and good advice when the going gets tough for young couples.

2.Examine the role of family and social pressure in “Marriage is a Private Affair” in contrast to the role it plays in a love marriage.

Ans: In a traditional arranged marriage, one sees the role of family pressure and social expectations. When Nnaemeka dreads speaking to his father about his impending marriage to Nene, it is because he knows the plans his father has made and the pressure that accompanies them. This becomes the case as Okeke speaks to his plans as to whom he wants Nnaemeka to marry, the bride he has chosen, and conveying the role that Okeke wants his son to play. This family pressure is seen in Okeke’s response, one that rejects his son’s wishes. The stubbornness and defiance that Okeke shows is reflective of an expectation that he believes his son has abdicated. This anger results in sending pictures of the wedding returned, with the bride’s head cut out of them. The attitude that Okeke conveys is that family and social pressure, what he would call expectations, must be accepted and be the guiding forces in one’s behavior. The anger he feels towards his son is that they were not accepted.
Such demands are not as present in the love marriage that Nene and Nnaemeka share. Their marriage is one in which social pressure is not as evident. The couple live in an urban setting, Lagos, and are able to blend in with others, without the looming social pressure and family expectations present. They live their lives for one another, devoid of the need to adhere to any other expectation. The story shows this as one distinct aspect of a love marriage that is different from a traditionally sanctioned relationship through the adherence to social expectations. The role of family expectations and social pressure in a love marriage is not as dominating as it would be in a traditional marriage.

3.How has living in the city changed Nnaemeka’s attitudes towards the old tribal ways?


Ans:It becomes clear that living in the city has helped to change Nnaemeka’s attitudes from the tribal ways of his father. He is surrounded by more education in Lagos than in the tribal setting. This has enabled him to embrace a cosmopolitan approach to being in the world. The discrimination and prejudices that Okeke and the triabl ways offers towards someone like Nene have been put aside. Nnaemeka’s living in the city has helped to foster this level of change. 
At the same time, it becomes clear that life in Lagos is not as culturally bound by tradition as what Okeke experiences. Life in Lagos is more heterogeneous. The friends that Nene and Nnaemeka have come from varied backgrounds. While they might display initial reticence towards Nene, they are flexible and Achebe makes it a point that she “wins them over.” It is for this reason that Nnaemeka does not really “get” his father’s objections to Nene. When Nnaemeka argues that he wishes to marry for love, it becomes a statement of what living in the city has brought about in his consciousness. Nnaemeka understands marriage to be for love and this is a modern reflection, something that the environment of the city has helped to bring about within him. It is for this reason that one can see how living in the city has helped to establish a fundamental change within him and that accentuated when he sees his father and hears his objections being offered on such narrow and pedantic grounds.

4.Assess the cultural relavance of “Marriage is a Private Affair.” 

Ans:The original question had to be edited. I would suggest that the cultural relevance of Achebe’s story lies in how there is a fundamental changing of social perception regarding institutions such as marriage. The fact that Okeke is resistant to change and does whatever he can to ensure that his son and his daughter in law are not happy is almost secondary to how they pursue happiness. Nnaemeka is not elated at how he is disappointing his father. However, “marriage is a private affair” and is something that he pursues any way. The cultural boundaries are changing in how the young do believe in marriage for love and not out of duty or misplaced responsibility. It is in this where there is a definite cultural relevance to the story. Should the older generation wish to remain steadfast in their ways and refuse to adopt the elements of social change, the result will be alienation and isolation. Okeke is hit with immediate grief and regret that he has lost time with his son and grandsons. 
For her part, Nene shows that she is not impacted with Okeke’s coarse and cruel rejection. She is steadfast in her own sense of being as a modern woman who wishes to make a life for her family. In her resilience and in Okeke’s regret, one sees how the story is culturally relevant for a changing world where young people are able to envision what can and should be as opposed to merely conforming to what is.


5.Identify where there is hope in Nene’s letter to Okeke at the end of “Marriage is a Private Affair.”

Ans :Nene’s emotional frame of reference is complex in her letter to Okeke. There is a sense of sadness to it in that she readily acknowledges that the relationship between she and her father in law will, to a great extent, be ruptured. Yet, I think that Nene’s hope at the end of her letter to Okeke is fairly powerful in that it is a desire to seek resolution without sacrifice to her own sense of dignity. The letter speaks to the idea that she is a mother who wishes the best for her children, boys who wish to know their grandfather. She does not let her own sense of dignity and pride impact their own connection. In her statement about how she “will remain in Lagos,” there is a sadness, but a sense of the resolute present. She had been shown in the story as one who will not be defined by setback and adversity, but actually rise above it. She also does not show herself to be a woman that wishes to break the bond between her husband and his father. She clearly states that the three of them in terms of the father and the two sons wish to visit Okeke. The hope present is that she will not deny or repudiate this in the same way that Okeke’s demeanor has done in terms of his son’s and Nene’s marriage. It is in this where hope is evident, that moral ascendancy and transcendency is evident in her actions, the actions of a young person. It is in this that we see Okeke’s “resolution he had built up over so many years falling in.” It is here where there is hope and where there is redemption at the end of her letter.

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The parrot in a cage|Four levels

The Parrot in a cage


Literal Comprehension:

 The poem “The Parrot in the Cage”was composed by Lekhanath Paudyal. The theme of the poem is about freedom, justice, happiness and serenity. The poem is a bitter satire on the then Rana regime that deprived Nepalese people freedom. The speaker has carefully painted the conditions that surround the parrot’s life. The speaker is disappointed by the harsh reality of man’s life. Away from its family, home, kin, friends, and the natural freedom man has forced the parrot to live a tragic life. Similar is the condition of the human life in Nepal of that period. Being a worshipper of nature, Poudel expresses his deep affinity to the natural world that provides him childhood appetite, which he wants in his later life. Having compelled to live away from his family, home and friends, Poudel pains for it and expresses nostalgia towards it. Finally, through the medium of parrot, voices of political, social, religious, spiritual and habitual life style and situation of human beings are exhumed in the poem. The poem clearly advocates the human instinct to live a free and struggled life away from the crowd.




In this poem “The Parrot in the Cage”, the poet is trying to advocates the freedom of people in the Rana regime. The Nepalese people had been ruled by the Ranas for one hundred and four years. During this period, people were deprived of enjoying all kinds of freedom. The speaker in the poem is disappointed by the harsh reality of man’s life. Besides, man has been found to live away from his family, home, kin, friends, and the spiritual freedom that surround him in the rural life. Thus, man has been forced to live a caged life like the parrot. Man’s indifference to animal’s plight and the mentality of getting entertainment from imprisoning lower animals has been criticized in the poem. Living away from the nature man has invited more tragedy and sorrow in his life.

Critical thinking:

 The speaker has carefully painted the conditions that surround the parrot’s life. Through the plight of the parrot, the speaker compares the sorrowful description of human life, lack of justice and freedom, the aggression and the cruelty prevalent in the society. Being a worshipper of nature, Poudel expresses his deep affinity to the natural world that provides him childhood appetite, which he wants in his later life. Having compelled to live away from his family, home and friends, Poudel pains for it and expresses nostalgia towards it. More than that, Hindu tradition to pray and appeal God at the time of difficulty is spread all over the poem. In the philosophical level, the poem may be faultless, but I have reservation towards the voices of the parrot. In real life, does a parrot speak like human to express his sorrows?


 After reading this poem, I have realized that how cruel the Rana regime was. I always stand for the freedom of the human beings. As Jean jacks Rousseau said, “Man is born free and wants to live free”. Thus, I request all the human beings not to capture any animal as well as not any citizens at the name of ruling system or any pleasure.