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Forces Affecting Organization-Environment relationships | Principles Of Management

images (15)Forces Affecting Organization-Environment relationships

The major forces that affect Organization-Environment relationships are as follows:



Economic Environment :

The economic  environment of business is largely determined by the economic system of the country .A number of economic factors such as economic planning and control,national income ,industrial policies,monetary and fiscal policies,investments,savings,inflation,and international economic activities reflect economic development. The economic environment dramatically affects companies’ ability to function effectively and influences their strategic choices.

Political Environment:

Political Environment is related to management of public affairs. Political environment mainly refers to the political structure,composition of bureaucracy,and ideology of the ruling government .Political philosophy can be democratic or autocratic.Democracy provides greater role to private sector.The political system that exist in a country influence business organization.

Legal Environment:

Legal Environment refers to all the legal principles and polices that affect Organizations’ activities.It is the framework of laws ,regulations and court decision intended to encourage and control business activities.Thus, government can affect business opportunities through tax laws ,economic policies,and international trade rulings.

Socio-cultural Environment:

Socio-cultural forces consists of the attitudes ,beliefs and values of individuals and groups in society.As the values,customs and tastes change in the society ,the managers must also change his organizational pattern.As society change,our life also changes by new things. Life styles and social values promote social change.It affects product choice.

Technological Environment:

Technology consists of skills,operating methods,system and tools that are designed to make work more efficient.It also largely influences organization by creating changes in jobs,skills ,life styles ,products production methods and processes.Information technology ,automation ,computerization,and  new materials have influenced organization.





We are Breaking the Silence About Death | Four Levels

roWe are Breaking the Silence About Death
Four Levels | Daniel Goleman (1964)


Literal Comprehension:
Elisabeth Kublor – Rose work with the dying people in the mid 60 ‘s. Before that time the topic to death was banded. Now death has become a fashionable subject. Through her best selling book ” on death and dying” she has alert a new way of handling dying. She has suggested that the people should die in their own homes rather than in a strange hospital. After working with the dying people for a long time, she has pointed out five psychological stages people usually experience when they know that they are going to die soon. These stages are denial, anger or rage, bargaining, depression and acceptance. These reaction are not limited to dying but can take place with any change or lost.

The dying person denies or says “No” when he first knows that he is going to die. The denial makes it easy for him to bear the force of death. At the unconscious level, a person never believes that he will die. From their refusal he begins to hope. Kublor Rose suggest that we should take about death with the patient and arrange to complete all possible things.

Critical Thinking:
This passage has clearly expressed how the topic death has become a fashionable subject. But The Behavior of dying person is at the unconscious level. This stages or levels are denial, anger or rage, bargaining, depression and acceptance.

When a patient stop denying, he begins to be angry. He is angry seeing other healthy people. When his anger becomes less, he starts to bargaining with god. He wants to become good if he is given some more time to live. After he has accepted his death partially, he becomes depressed. He feels sorry for the past mistakes or incomplete tasks. He want to passed time in isolation. Finally he accept death peacefully and he is not worried about making his life longer. He settles everything. His own diseases also does not worry him. He enjoy the present moment without thinking of the future. He lives the full life.


Difference between Periodic and Perpetual Inventory System

accDifference between Periodic and Perpetual Inventory System

A periodic inventory system is an inventory system that records inventory levels at specific points in time. These points in time are usually at the end of accounting periods. Periodic systems use physical count audits, where employees actually count each and every item in the store to get an accurate inventory level. This amount is then compared to sales reports and purchase receipts to verify the amount of goods sold and to see if there are any discrepancies in numbers.

On the other hand, a perpetual system is an inventory system that records inventory into the accounting system on a continuous basis. This type of system relies heavily on automation to instantly track purchases and sales, and update the accounting system immediately. When an item is purchased, it is automatically recorded in the accounting system as an inventory item.


Periodic Inventory System Perpetual Inventory System  
In periodic inventory inventory is valued at the end of the period that may be end of the month ,end of the half year ,end of the year,etc. In perpetual inventory system inventory is valued after each nad every transaction.  
In this system inventory account and cost of goods sold are non-existent until the physical count at the end of the year. In this system account and balance of thecosts of goods sold and inventory account exist all the time.  
In this system purchases account is used to record purchases. In this system no individual purchases account but the purchases are recorded in the inventory account.  
In this system purchases return account is used to record purchase returns. In this system no individual purchases account but  recorded in the inventory account.  
In this system Cost of goods sold or cost of sale is computed from Ending Inventory. In this system Cost of goods sold or cost of sale is reduced when there is a sale.  
In this system for goods returned by customers there is no inventories entries. In this system for goods returned by customers are recorded by reducing the Cost of goods sold  and adding back to inventories.  
Closing Entries are only required in periodic inventory system to update inventory and cost of goods sold.

Perpetual inventory system does not require closing entries for inventory account.




Difference between Capital And Revenue Expenditure

accDifference between Capital And Revenue Expenditure

Capital expenditure includes costs incurred on the acquisition of a fixed asset and any subsequent expenditure that increases the earning capacity of an existing fixed asset.The cost of acquisition not only includes the cost of purchases but also any additional costs incurred in bringing the fixed asset into its present location and condition (e.g. delivery costs).Capital expenditure, as opposed to revenue expenditure, is generally of a one-off kind and its benefit is derived over several accounting periods. Capital Expenditure may include Purchase costs (less any discount received),Delivery costs,Legal charges,Installation costs,Up gradation costs,Replacement costs,etc.

Revenue expenditure incurred on fixed assets include costs that are aimed at ‘maintaining’ rather than enhancing the earning capacity of the assets. These are costs that are incurred on a regular basis and the benefit from these costs is obtained over a relatively short period of time. For example, a company buys a machine for the production of biscuits. Whereas the initial purchase and installation costs would be classified as capital expenditure, any subsequent repair and maintenance charges incurred in the future will be classified as revenue expenditure. This is so because repair and maintenance costs do not increase the earning capacity of the machine but only maintains it (i.e. machine will produce the same quantity of biscuits as it did when it was first put to use).Revenue costs therefore comprise of Repair costs,Maintenance charges,etc.

Basis Capital Expenditure Revenue Expenditure
Occurance Capital Expenditure is incurred to acquire or to improve permanent asset. Revenue Expenditure is incurred in normal courses of Business.
Effect It increases the value of assets and earning capacity. It is incurred for maintaining earning capacity of the business and up keeps 0f the fixed assets.
Benefits It provides benifits over several years. It is consumed within the accounting year.
Nature It is non-recurring in nature. It is recurring in nature.
Presentation It is shown in the balance sheet of asset side. It is charged in revenue account ie; income statement.


Difference between Accounts Payable and Notes Payable

accDifference between Accounts Payable and Notes Payable


An accounts payable is a liability that is short term, usually between two weeks and one month, while notes payable is a liability that has a longer term, the shortest of which is six months.Accounts payable is based on good faith and requires no written agreement other than a sales invoice while notes payable requires a written contract which must be signed by the debtor and which states the terms of the account.Accounts payable is not charged with interest or other fees while notes payable have a specific interest rate and service charges.Notes payable are usually offered by banks and other financial institutions while accounts payable are offered by suppliers of goods and services.

Basis Accounts  Pyable Notes Payable
Definition  Accounts Payable is the obligation that a business owes to its creditors for buying goods and services.  

Note payable is a written promissory note under which  a borrower obtains a specific amount of money from a lender and promises to pay it back with interest over a predetermined time period. 

Mode of agreement

Accounts Payable is an informal and verbal agreement.

Notes Payable is an formal and written agreement.
Origin It originates from the purchase of tradable items or inventories. It originates from the purchase of tradable items or inventories and it may also evolve in case of purchase of long-lived assets or borrowing or to satisfy the existing obligation.
Terms There is no specific terms such as maturity period ,interest rate included with accounts payable. There is specific terms such as maturity period ,interest rate included with notes payable.
Interest There is no interest associated with the accounts payable. Interest is explicitly or implicitly involved with notes payable.
Time It is a short term liability. It may be short-term or long term liability.
Risk of custom
It is created in case of low risk customer. It is created in case of high risk customer.
Possibility Accounts payable can be converted into notes payable. Notes payable can be never converted into accounts payable.


Process Of Memory | General Psychology

Process Of Memory | General Psychology

memory processMemory is essentially the capacity for storing and retrieving information. Three processes are involved in memory: encoding, storage, and retrieval. All three of these processes determine whether something is remembered or forgotten.

1) Encoding

Processing information into memory is called encoding. People automatically encode some types of information without being aware of it. For example, most people probably can recall where they ate lunch yesterday, even though they didn’t try to remember this information. However, other types of information become encoded only if people pay attention to it. College students will probably not remember all the material in their textbooks unless they pay close attention while they’re reading.

There are several different ways of encoding verbal information:

  • Structural encoding focuses on what words look like. For instance, one might note whether words are long or short, in uppercase or lowercase, or handwritten or typed.
  • Phonemic encoding focuses on how words sound.
  • Semantic encoding focuses on the meaning of words. Semantic encoding requires a deeper level of processing than structural or phonemic encoding and usually results in better memory.

2) Storage

After information enters the brain, it has to be stored or maintained. To describe the process of storage, many psychologists use the three-stage model proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin. According to this model, information is stored sequentially in three memory systems: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

Sensory Memory

Sensory memory stores incoming sensory information in detail but only for an instant. The capacity of sensory memory is very large, but the information in it is unprocessed. If a flashlight moves quickly in a circle inside a dark room, people will see a circle of light rather than the individual points through which the flashlight moved. This happens because sensory memory holds the successive images of the moving flashlight long enough for the brain to see a circle. Visual sensory memory is called iconic memory; auditory sensory memory is called echoic memory.

Short-Term Memory

Some of the information in sensory memory transfers to short-term memory, which can hold information for approximately twenty seconds. Rehearsing can help keep information in short-term memory longer. When people repeat a new phone number over and over to themselves, they are rehearsing it and keeping it in short-term memory.

Short-term memory has a limited capacity: it can store about seven pieces of information, plus or minus two pieces. These pieces of information can be small, such as individual numbers or letters, or larger, such as familiar strings of numbers, words, or sentences. A method called chunking can help to increase the capacity of short-term memory. Chunking combines small bits of information into bigger, familiar pieces.

Example: A person confronted with this sequence of twelve letters would probably have difficulty remembering it ten seconds later, because short-term memory cannot handle twelve pieces of information: HO TB UT TE RE DP OP CO RN IN AB OW L However, these letters can be easily remembered if they’re grouped into six familiar words, because short-term memory can hold six pieces of information: HOT BUTTERED POPCORN IN A BOWL

Working Memory

Psychologists today consider short-term memory to be a working memory. Rather than being just a temporary information storage system, working memory is an active system. Information can be kept in working memory while people process or examine it. Working memory allows people to temporarily store and manipulate visual images, store information while trying to make decisions, and remember a phone number long enough to write it down.

Long-Term Memory

Information can be transferred from short-term memory to long-term memory and from long-term memory back to short-term memory.Long-term memory has an almost infinite capacity, and information in long-term memory usually stays there for the duration of a person’s life. However, this doesn’t mean that people will always be able to remember what’s in their long-term memory—they may not be able to retrieve information that’s there.

Organization of Memories

Imagine what would happen if a psychology textbook weren’t organized by section, by chapter, or in any other way. Imagine if the textbook didn’t have a table of contents or an index. If the textbook just contained lots of information in a random order, students would have difficulty finding a particular concept, such as “encoding of memory.” They’d know the information was in there somewhere, but they’d have trouble retrieving it.

Long-term memory stores much more information than a textbook, and people would never be able to retrieve the information from it if it weren’t organized in some way.

Psychologists believe one way the brain organizes information in long-term memory is by category. For example, papaya may be organized within the semantic category fruit. Categories can also be based on how words sound or look. If someone is struggling to remember the word papaya, she may remember first that it’s a three-syllable word, that it begins with the letter p, or that it ends with the letter a.

Long-term memory organizes information not only by categories but also by the information’s familiarity, relevance, or connection to other information.

 3) Retrieval

Retrieval is the process of getting information out of memory.Retrieval cues are stimuli that help the process of retrieval. Retrieval cues include associations, context, and mood.


Because the brain stores information as networks of associated concepts, recalling a particular word becomes easier if another, related word is recalled first. This process is called priming.

Example: If Tim shows his roommate a picture of sunbathers on a nude beach and then asks him to spell the word bear, the roommate may be more likely to spell bare because the picture primed him to recall that form of the word.


People can often remember an event by placing themselves in the same context they were in when the event happened.

Example: If a woman loses her car keys, she may be able to recall where she put them if she re-creates in her mind exactly what she did when she last came in from parking her car.


If people are in the same mood they were in during an event, they may have an easier time recalling the event.


Source :



Schools of Thought in Psychology | General Psychology

school-of-thoughts-2-728Schools of Thought in Psychology General Psychology

When psychology first emerged as a science separate from biology and philosophy, the debate over how to describe and explain the human mind and behavior began. The different schools of psychology represent the major theories within psychology.

The first school of thought, structuralism, was advocated by the founder of the first psychology lab, Wilhelm Wundt. Almost immediately, other theories began to emerge and vie for dominance in psychology.

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Perspectives in Psychology | General Psychology

 download (7)Perspectives in Psychology

An approach is a perspective (i.e. view) that involves certain assumptions (i.e. beliefs) about human behavior: the way they function, which aspects of them are worthy of study and what research methods are appropriate for undertaking this study. There may be several different theories within an approach, but they all share these common assumptions.You may wonder why there are so many different psychology perspectives and whether one approach is correct and others wrong.  Most psychologists would agree that no one perspective is correct, although in the past, in the early days of psychology, the behaviorist would have said their perspective was the only truly scientific one.

Each perspective has its strengths and weaknesses, and brings something different to our understanding of human behavior.  For this reason, it is important that psychology does have different perspectives to the understanding and study of human and animal behavior.

The early years of psychology were marked by the domination of a succession of different schools of thought. If you have ever taken a psychology course in school, you probably remember learning about these different schools which included structuralism, functionalism, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanism. As psychology has grown, so has the number and variety of topics that psychologists investigate. Since the early 1960s, the field of psychology has flourished and continued to grow at a rapid pace, and so has the depth and breadth of subjects studied by psychologists.

1. The Psychodynamic Perspective

The psychodynamic perspective originated with the work of Sigmund Freud. This view of psychology and human behavior emphasizes the role of the unconscious mind, early childhood experiences, and interpersonal relationships to explain human behavior and to treat people suffering from mental illnesses.

Psychoanalysis became one of the earliest major forces within psychology thanks to Freud’s work and influence. Freud conceived of the mind as being composed of three key elements: the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is the part of the psyche that includes all the primal and unconscious desires. The ego is the aspect of the psyche that must deal with the demands of the real world. The superego is the last part of the psyche to develop and is tasked with managing all of our internalized morals, standards, and ideals.

2. The Behavioral Perspective

Behavioral psychology is a perspective that focuses on learned behaviors. Behaviorism differed from many other perspectives because instead of emphasizing internal states, it focused solely on observable behaviors.

While this school of thought dominated psychology early in the twentieth century, it began to lose its hold during the 1950s. Today, the behavioral perspective is still concerned with how behaviors are learned and reinforced. Behavioral principles are often applied in mental health settings, where therapists and counselors use these techniques to explain and treat a variety of illnesses.

3. The Cognitive Perspective

During the 1960s, a new perspective known as cognitive psychology began to take hold. This area of psychology focuses on mental processes such as memory, thinking, problem solving, language and decision-making. Influenced by psychologists such as Jean Piaget and Albert Bandura, this perspective has grown tremendously in recent decades.

Cognitive psychologists often utilize an information-processing model, comparing the human mind to a computer, to conceptualize how information is acquired, processed, stored, and utilized.

4. The Biological Perspective

The study of physiology played a major role in the development of psychology as a separate science. Today, this perspective is known as biological psychology. Sometimes referred to as biopsychology or physiological psychology, this point of view emphasizes the physical and biological bases of behavior.

Researchers who take a biological perspective on psychology might look at how genetics influence different behaviors or how damage to specific areas of the brain influence behavior and personality. Things like the nervous system, genetics, the brain, the immune system, and the endocrine systems are just a few of the subjects that interest biological psychologists.

This perspective has grown significantly over the last few decades, especially with advances in our ability to explore and understand the human brain and nervous system. Tools such as MRI scans and PET scans allow researchers to look at the brain under a variety of conditions. Scientists can now look at the effects of brain damage, drugs, and disease in ways that were simply not possible in the past.

5. The Cross-Cultural Perspective

Cross-cultural psychology is a fairly new perspective that has grown significantly over the last twenty years. These psychologists and researchers look at human behavior across different cultures. By looking at these differences, we can learn more about how our culture influences our thinking and behavior.

For example, researchers have looked at how social behaviors differ in individualistic and collectivistic cultures. In individualistic cultures, such as the U.S., people tend to exert less effort when they are part of a group, a phenomenon known as social loafing. In collectivistic cultures such as China, however, people tend to work harder when they are part of a group.

6. The Evolutionary Perspective

Evolutionary psychology is focused on the study of how evolution explains physiological processes. Psychologists and researchers take the basic principles of evolution, including natural selection, and apply them to psychological phenomena. This perspective suggests that these mental processes exist because they serve an evolutionary purpose – they aid in survival and reproduction.

7. The Humanistic Perspective

During the 1950s, a school of thought known as humanistic psychology emerged. Influenced greatly by the work of prominent humanists such as Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow, this perspective emphasizes the role of motivation on thought and behavior.

Concepts such as self-actualization are an essential part of this perspective. Those who take the humanist perspective focus on the ways that human beings are driven to grow, change, and develop their personal potential. Positive psychology is one relatively recent movement in psychology that has its roots in the humanist perspective

Perspectives Conclusion

Therefore, in conclusion, there are so many different perspectives in psychology to explain the different types of behavior and give different angles.  No one perspective has explanatory powers over the rest.

Only with all the different types of psychology, which sometimes contradict one another (nature-nurture debate), overlap with each other (e.g. psychoanalysis and child psychology) or build upon one another (biological and health psychologist) can we understand and create effective solutions when problems arise so we have a healthy body and a healthy mind.

The fact that there are different perspectives represents the complexity and richness of human (and animal) behavior. A scientific approach, such as behaviorism or cognitive psychology, tends to ignore the subjective (i.e. personal) experiences that people have. 

The humanistic perspective does recognize human experience, but largely at the expense of being non-scientific in its methods and ability to provide evidence.  The psychodynamic perspective concentrates too much on the unconscious mind and childhood. As such, it tends to lose sight of the role of socialization (which is different in each country) and the possibility of free will.

The biological perspective reduces humans to a set of mechanisms and physical structures that are clearly essential and important (e.g. genes).  However, it fails to account for consciousness and the influence of the environment on behavior.





 ■ What is the primary function of our sensory receptors?

Sensory receptors transduce raw physical energy into neural impulses, which are then interpreted by our central nervous system.

What does the term absolute threshold refer to, and why is signal detection theory important?

The absolute threshold is the smallest magnitude of a stimulus that can be detected 50 percent of the time. Signal detection theory helps to separate sensitivity from motivational factors.

What is a difference threshold?

The term difference threshold refers to the amount of change in a stimulus required for a person to detect the change.

Can subliminal messages affect our behavior?

 Most careful research fails to show any meaningful effects of subliminal messages on aspects of our cognitive processes or behavior.



What are the basic structures of the eye, and what is the physical stimulus for vision?

Light rays first pass through the cornea and then enter the eye through the pupil. Adjustments to lighting conditions are executed by the iris. The lens is a clear structure whose shape adjusts to permit us to focus on objects at varying distances. Light rays leaving the lens are projected onto the retina at the back of the eyeball. The physical stimulus for vision consists of electromagnetic wavelengths that stimulate the rods and cones in the retina.

What are the basic functions of the visual system?

The basic functions of the visual system include acuity, dark adaptation, and eye movements. Acuity is the ability to see fine details. Dark adaptation is the increase in sensitivity that occurs when we move from bright light to a dim environment. Various types of eye movements are crucial to our ability to track moving objects and to perceive distance and depth.

How do psychologists explain color perception?

Our rich sense of color stems from mechanisms at several levels of our nervous system. Two leading theories that explain how we perceive color are trichromatic theory and opponent-process theory.

 ■ Why is visual perception a hierarchical process?

Visual perception is a hierarchical process because increasingly complex visual information is analyzed and compiled at successive stages—eventually yielding a coherent and flowing visual world.

What are the basic building blocks of visual perception?

The basic building blocks of visual perception begin with feature detectors—neurons in the visual cortex that respond when particular types of stimuli, with characteristic features, are detected.


 ■ What is the physical stimulus for hearing?

The physical stimulus for hearing is sound waves, which stimulate tiny hair cells in the cochlea.

 ■ How do psychologists explain pitch perception?

Place theory and frequency theory help explain how we perceive pitch.

How do we localize sound?

The “sound shadow” created by our head causes sound to reach one ear slightly faster than the other. This small time difference helps us localize the source of sound.

Touch and Other Skin Senses

 ■ What is the physical stimulus for touch?

The physical stimulus for touch is a stretching of or pressure against receptors in the skin.

 ■ Where does the sensation of pain originate?

Sensations of pain originate in free nerve endings throughout the body.

What is the basis for cultural differences in pain perception?

Cultural differences in pain perception appear to be the result of learning, not physical differences.

 ■ What role do cognitive processes play in the perception of pain?

 Negative thinking while in pain, referred to as catastrophizing, can increase the perceived intensity of pain.

Smell and Taste:

The Chemical Senses

What is the physical stimulus for smell?

The physical stimulus for sensations of smell consists of molecules that stimulate receptors in the nose. ■ Where are the sensory receptors for taste located?

The sensory receptors for taste are located in papillae on the tongue.

 ■ What are the practical benefits of using ambient pleasant fragrance to solve real-world problems?

The use of pleasant fragrances can increase alertness among persons engaged in potentially dangerous activities, such as driving.

Kinesthesia and Vestibular Sense

 ■ What information does our kinesthetic sense provide to the brain?

Kinesthesia informs the brain about the location of body parts with respect to each other.

 ■ What information does the vestibular sense provide to the brain?

 The vestibular sense provides information about body position, movement, and acceleration.

Perception: Putting It All Together

Why is selective attention important?

Selective attention reduces interference from irrelevant sensory sources.

Why is it important to consider sensation and perception in the development of warnings?

 The effectiveness of warnings depends on both sensory and perceptual processes.

What role do Gestalt principles play in perceptual processes?

 The Gestalt principles of perceptual organization help us to structure the input from our sensory receptors.

What are perceptual constancies?

 Perceptual constancies are principles describing our ability to perceive aspects of the world as unchanging despite variations in the information reaching our sensory receptors, such as information about size, shape, or brightness.

■ What are illusions?

 Illusion is a term used by psychologists to refer to errors in interpreting sensory information.

 ■ What are the bottom-up and top-down theories of pattern recognition?

The bottom-up theory suggests that pattern recognition stems from our ability to recognize and combine basic visual features. In contrast, top-down theory emphasizes the role that expectations play in shaping our perceptions.

What are geons? What is their role in object recognition?

Geons are basic cylindrical shapes that, when combined according to rules, can be used to form any object. Some evidence suggests that geons are the basis of our representation of objects in memory.

How are we able to judge depth and distance?

Judgments of depth and distance result from both monocular and binocular cues.


 ■ How are the concepts nature and nurture related to perception?

 Both nature and nurture are important determinants of the ways we perceive the world around us. Nature refers to genetic influences on perception, whereas nurture refers to the relative effects of the environment and learning.

Extrasensory Perception: Perception without Sensation?

 ■ How do most psychologists view the possibility of extrasensory perception or psi?

Most psychologists remain highly skeptical about its existence and await the results of further careful research.




Copyright : Shishir Subba


The importance of motivation is obvious. We need motivation in order to reach our goals. In fact it is one of the most important and driving factor for us reaching our goals. So when that being said it is not hard to imaging how things would be if there was no such thing as motivation.

Motivation does not have to be positive emotions. Fear can be a very effective motivating factor. Stress is an example of negative motivating ineffective feelings. Most people have a tendency to become narrow sighted when they are stressed, some even get paralysed or apathy.

Is motivation important in the workplace? You bet! Why? First, you spend more time at work than you do awake at home. And typically, work environments are very goal oriented. Some people argue that getting goals motivates people. This is of course not true. It is the rewards for reaching the goals that motivates or the feeling of fulfilment when they reach their goals or the satisfaction of being important etc. This is why many companies and organisations are very strong on bonuses and appraisals.

  • Motivation is generally what energizes, maintains, and controls behavior; it acts as a stimulus for desirable actions.
  • The importance of motivation in the workplace is straightforward theoretically, but difficult to measure empirically.
  • Salary is often enough to keep employees working for an organization, but not necessarily enough to capitalize on their full potential.
  • Motivated employees will retain a high level of innovation while producing higher quality work at a higher level ofefficiency.
  • Theopportunity cost in motivating employees is essentially zero.
  • Motivated employees always look for better ways to do a job.
  • Motivated employees are qualitative.
  • Motivated workers are more productive and efficient.

In summary, motivated employees will retain a high level of innovation while producing higher quality work at a higher level of efficiency. While these benefits are broad, and therefore relatively vague, it also puts forth the argument that motivated employees have no downsides or costs. The opportunity cost in motivating employees is essentially zero, assuming it does not require additional capital to coach managers to act as effective motivators.


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