English II

Category Archive English II

Keeping Errors At Bay

Keeping Errors At Bay-Four Levels

russel

Literal Comprehension:

This essay is written by Betrand Russell which provides multiple examples of mistake that people generally commit in their day to day life. His main idea is to provide suggestions to avoid the mistakes. We need careful, serious, critical and analytical mind to get rid of these errors. This essay deals with the ideas of avoiding errors that happen in our daily life situations. We can remove many foolish opinions by observing the related facts. When observations are impossible, we have to compare our ideas with those of the others. If there are evidence and knowledge, there will be no wrong understanding. Visiting different places and observing societies of the world also helps us to purify your own opinions. Knowing others idea makes us less dogmatic. If we have one-sided idea about anything, we will not find out the truth, such situation, we will make our good points more important. Fear and prejudice of different types create obstacles from learning the truth or reality. So we should be very careful while doing any work. We should not take as granted anything without proper observation.

Interpretation:

The focus of this essay is to prevent people from committing some silly errors in day to day life.Making keen observation on subject matter having our personal experience, having a good plan and argument, self -esteem and fearlessness helps people to avoid such errors. To error is human but to do mistake is not excusable. Human make errors knowingly or having known about that error is not human. This is somewhat punishable also. We cannot find truth without proper understanding. The essay tries to tell us why human beings are unable to see the truth. They do not see the matter. They have illusion that they know everything without knowing it properly. It says that we have some mistakes generally we do not compare our idea with that of others. We unnecessarily feel pride and ignore things. Therefore, we commit crimes or errors. This is human but to do mistake knowingly cannot be human. There are solutions for errors but not the knowingly committing mistakes.

Critical Thinking:

Russell gives very concrete idea about errors and their solutions. He says how and why we do errors and how can we correct them. After reading this story I came to know and have some questions. The writer has presented a scientific way of thinking. By comparing and contrasting, we can judge our own ideas. I agree with many things which the essayist says but there are some questions in my mind.

  • Who can remain without doing any error?
  • How can one know that it is error and this not?
  • Can we change our mind not to doing errors?
  • Why people cannot find out the fact easily?
  • How we can compare such things to those of the others?
  • What are the forms of the truth?
  • How to know that whose idea is right or wrong? 

Assimilation:

Generally, we think right whatever we do. This essay gave me lots of ideas about errors and their types as well as their remedies (solution). I started to realize my mistakes in my life as I sometimes used to stubborn and think everything right. I started to honour other’s ideas. I also came to know why people mistake while making ideas. A wise man should look at the things from different sides. We should be comparative and multidimensional perspectives should be used. I came to know that we can do errors in every work every time but that is only found out after its proper judgment.

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Mr. Know-All

Mr. Know-All-Four levels

a

Literal Comprehension:

When the First World War ended, the writer ‘Somerset Maugham ‘ decided to go to Japan from America by ship. It was very difficult to get a good seat in the ship. But he managed to get in cabin seat in the ship. His cabin partner , max Kelada , was much talkative. At first the writer thought that he was a Negro but later he came to know that he was also an English man. However, he hated his chatty nature. He introduced with everyone in the ship and conducted a lottery action. He said that he had good knowledge of everything. So they called him ‘mr. know all’. Although alcohol was strictly prohibited to carry, he uttered writer to have cocktail “mix wine”. Once the writer, Mr. kelada, Mr and Mrs Ramsays got chanced to have dinner in the same table. Mr. ramsays was in the consular service posted at Kobe, Japan. He had spent one year in alone in japan because his salary was very low. Now he had come to take his wife with him. Mr. kelada said that he was going to japan to examine pearls. He saw a pearls chain around mrs ramsays neck and said that they were original. When Mr. Ramsays told him to guess the price, he said that they could cost upto 30,000 dollars.but when Mr. Ramsay said that they were false, he didn’t believe and they had bet of one hundred dollars. When Mr. Kelada was going to check the pearls, Mrs ramsay looked nervous. Although the pearls were original , Mr. kelada said that they were false to save Mrs. Ramsays. The next day when she returned his money, the writer was surprised to know the reality. He also know that Mr. kelada was really mr. know all. Then he began to like Mr. kelada.

Interpretation: 

This story may be trying to tell us about the writer’s attitude towards non-whites.The writer may be trying to show humanity and nature of women. Outer cover can never represents the inner reality. Although Mr. kelada is hated by all, he is proved to be the best example of humanity. He became fool and lost money and prestige but he saved the happy married life of Mr and Mrs Ramsay. This story also shows the duel character of women.

Critical thinking: 

Although this story gives the moral lession. Some ideas of the writer are not convincing. After reading this story we can ask some questions.

  • If alcohol was not allowed to carry how did Mr. kelada offet cocktail to the writer?
  • Did Mr. kelada know everything? Then why did people hate him?
  • Is a passenger allowed to carry all kinds of wines with him?
  • Does anyone dislike the other because of color?
  • Does anyone give up his money even after winning the bet?
  • Can we find such Mr. Know all in this world?
  • Don’t we find a frank and friendly person good during a long journey?
  • Should a husband really suspect on the behavior of his wife?

Assimilation: 

Before I read the story, I used to make friendship with as many people as I met. I enjoyed talking with them about what I know.But I did not study their view whether they liked my talk or not.I am very much affected by this story. After reading this story, I know that we can’t judge people from their appearance. This story also taught me that it is not easy to understand the character and secrecy of women. Now I won’t believe in women easily.

 

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The Burden of Skepticism

The Burden of Skepticism-Four Levels

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Literal Comprehension:
Skepticism is found in every day life. If we have to buy a used car we examining it even if we do not have any ideas about the car. If we buy it without examining, we know that we may have to be sorry for it. In some cases we use skepticism, but in politics and commercials we do not use it. So we cheated a little. But if we do not use it in the case of medicine we have we have to bear a great loss.

Interpretation:
If we study the whole history of mankind, we find that they have always accepted some kind of popular belief system. The reason for this is that all human needs are never fulfilled. These unfulfilled needs may be satisfied by these beliefs. It is natural for us to have a desire to take our dead relatives. And we would be happy when we learn that our spirit does not die and our existence will not come to an end forever.

Critical Thinking:
There are many channels who claim that they can contact with the spirit of a person long- long ago. But these spirits do not answer any specific questions and they answer only general and vague (unclear) questions. Their specific answer would have helps us a lot to know about the society of the past.
  • Why does the writer completely neglected the possibility of the existence of spirit /god? Can he prove what he is saying?

Assimilation:
Skepticism is dangerous. So it is not taught in school. Skepticism and openness to new ideas are equally necessary for human progress. If we are too open, we will not be in opposition to tell a difference between what is good and what is bad. But, on the other hand, if we are too skeptical, no new ideas will find any place. Scientist forms new ideas in to their minds in the form of hypothesis and examining them closely. If their ideas are proved correct they will be accepted. If they are proved false later on, the scientists will accept that they have made a mistake. But religious and political leaders never accept what is against their principles, however wrong their ideas may be.

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Adventures In English Vol II

Adventures In English Vol II ,Four levels

adven

Unit One: The Environment

  1. How Sane Are We?
  2. Don’t Cut Down the Trees Brother Woodcutter

Unit Two: Natural Science

  1. To Know a Fly

Unit Three: Humor and Satire

  1. King John and the Abbot of Canterbury
  2. Third Thoughts
  3. Who was to Blame?
  4. The Clock Tower

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The Clock Tower-Four levels

The Clock Tower

ghantaghar

Literal Comprehension:

The speaker in this poem describes the conduction of an old pensioner. The poem has compared the old pensioned senior vet with clock tower, Ghantaghar. He is  old, rejected and has distributed all his things to his relatives. All his military equipments are gone. The old pensioner has jealously too; so, he has kept two souvenirs of his army life. They are an old-modeled, large, round pocket watch and the ancient hat. The clock tower is like a pensioned senior vet who is passing t=long and sand days of the old age. It has a clock on its neck and a cap like the old vet on its head. It is standing forever on the bank of Ghantaghar and it is brooding.

Interpretation:

The loneliness of the old man is powerfully presented through the image of the clock tower symbolically. Like the clock tower which is old, neglected and waiting its end day, the old man has also the same fate- old, rejected and dejected. The poem has revealed the bitter reality of the old age. Ranipokhari was built by the king Pratap Malla in 1727 BS in the memory of his son. It was a token of consolation to his wife. Thus, by looking at the lake the old man remembers his past and is mollifying (lessening) his suffering.

Critical Thinking: 

Time is most power full thing. It turns a handsome man to an old and ugly person who has nothing except memories. We all are victims of the time. The poem aptly points out the power of time. The vet is sitting under the tower, time, which itself is the curse of for human being. The poem has used the power of imagery in a powerful way. Without stating the history of Ranipokhari it invites readers to know why the old man is looking at the Ranipokhari, queen’s lake.

  • Why does the poet compare an in animate object like a clock tower with a living human being?
  • Why does he say that the clock tower is brooding? It is unhappy. How does he know?

Assimilation:

The poet seems to be very unhappy with our neglect towards tradition, historical monuments.In our life as well, when we grow older, nobody talks to us. We want to share our experiences, but nobody would have time to listen us. Thus we lament and curse time because it is time that changes us to an old and ugly things. We have to wait silently to death. We cannot stop the passage of time, time is powerful than us. We have nothing except lamenting on the bygone days. I met an old man in Pasupati area. He reported all his grief within five minutes to an unknown like me.

 

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Third Thoughts-Four levels

Third Thoughts

third

Literal Comprehension:

This story “Third Thoughts” is written by E.V Lucas. The narrator’s friend was not a successful businessman.  Once the writer’s friend while visiting New York bought a painting thinking that it was by Turner. He got it at cheap price since the seller was also confused about its originality. With the painting he went to London and sold it at fifty pounds. He was so much happy that he decided to share the profit with seller of New York. At first, he decided to share fifty percent of his profit and wrote a letter but having no stamp, he went to his room. Again at about 3 AM, he thought it quite inappropriate to share the profit but still thought of sending ten pounds only. His thinking kept on changing and couldn’t sleep well. Again. he thought of sending five pounds thinking that if he shared, the Goddess would be angry and he thought it was he who knew the value of the painting. If he had known it, he wouldn’t have given him at such cheap rate, so it is wrong to send him the profit. Finally, he decided to send only a pound.Early in the morning, he went out side and spent all his money in gambling. Finally, he concluded that buying and selling are straight forward matter. Everyone in this matter tries to get benefit. The buyer once paying to the goods has no obligation to the dealer.

Interpretation: 

The story presenting the constant changing nature of human mind seems to be full of humor and satire. Basically thinking with the nature of businessman’s mind it proves that human mind can never be rigid and fixed. Especially in business their mind keeps on changing. At another level, it sheds light on human earning since the earning as that of writer’s friend has no meaning at all in life. The most important thing in the story is that in business buying and selling are straight forward dealings. It has nothing to do with human consideration, sympathy and faith. Once goods are sold or bought they have nothing to do with them since then.

Critical Thinking: 

The story offers a great deal of humor and satire. But in many respects, it doesn’t seem appropriate and convincing.  

  •       Does anyone want to share his profit? Isn’t the idea of sharing profit with the dealer  humors?
  •       Does any seller sell his good without knowing it?
  •         Does a customer get Turner’s painting in such low price?
  •       How can we say that there is no value of  feelings and emotions while doing business?

Assimilation: 

As I went through the story, it reminded me of my own events that I experienced earlier. Once I had been to my village after a long time from the city. I had taken a beautiful watch there. Everyone liked it, one of my friends promised to pay Rs 500 for it ,so I gave it to him. I got Rs 300 as profit, and so I got extremely happy.

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King John and the Abbot of Canterbury-Four levels

King John and the Abbot of Canterbury

Four levels for-BBA,BBA-BI,BBA-TT,BCIS

abot

Literal Comprehension:

‘King John and the Abbot of Canterbury’ is a poetic story(poem that tells story) written by unknown writer before 1695 so it is called Anonymous poem.The two central characters and they are King John and the Abbot of Canterbury.The king is infamous for his wrong deeds whereas Abbot of Canterbury is popular among people due to his popular deeds and behaviors.Once the king of England was quite jealous and suspicious of the prosperity of the Abbot of Canterbury. So he thought that the abbot might make a conspiracy against his throne. The king decided to get rid of him. So he called the abbot and asked three nonsense questions on the condition that he would behead him if he failed to answer the questions within fifteen days. The questions were: What is the exact price/value of the king with his crown of gold on his head among the noblemen? How quickly he may ride the whole world about? What does the king think at the moment? It made him too sad. He tried his best to find the answer by consulting the professors visiting the university but couldn’t. Finally, his own shepherd promised him to help him. So one day, in order to answer the questions raised by the king, the shepherd changed himself as the abbot and went to the palace. One by one he answered that the value of the king was twenty nine pence less than the savior, for the second he responded that it takes a whole day if he rose and ran in the speed of sun that rotates round the earth and for the last, he responded that the king might be thinking that he was the abbot of Canterbury but he was wrong because he was a simple shepherd to abbot.. Finally, the disguised shepherd i.e. the abbot exposed all the truths. The king becomes happy with the shepherd and offers him a place of Abbot in Canterbury. In return the shepherd rejects king’s proposal saying that he is not qualified enough to be appointed as an Abbot.

Interpretation:
From the moral point of view, the poem is much impressive.An absolute king, under any threat, can take an immoral, unethical, illogical decision to save his throne.Knowledge does not just belong to scholars, and high ranked religious people. Source of knowledge is everywhere and it comes through experience as well.Even an uneducated person sometimes can solve riddles that are unsolved by scholars.Through the poem, the poet proves that the bookish and formal education is not so much effective and useful to solve the practical problems. On the one hand, it has a great lesson that people and their knowledge shouldn’t be judged on the ground of their profession and appearance. Thus the text has taught a great lesson that makes it clear that much is learnt through their daily life activities than from the universities. So the so called ignorant ones in terms of getting formal education aren’t to be ignored and devaluated.

Critical Thinking:

The poem seems to be much humorous and satirical. So far it imparts the idea of human knowledge and wisdom, it is appropriate but in whatever way the King Abbot and the Shepherd are presented, they don’t seem believable and convincing. Since the king fails to recognize the shepherd changed as abbot. Similarly, the shepherd is presented in such a way that doesn’t fit him to be more than that it mocks the formal education. It is too difficult to accept it.

  • Can a king ask such nonsense question to a reputed Abbot?
  • Don’t you think Shepherd’s answers are controversial?
  • How can the king leave the person so easily  who betrayed him?

Assimilation:

Reading this poem, I am too much impressed with the fact that only the formal education doesn’t make people capable, rather they may learn many things from the practical experiences too. Having seen in my village, I come to know that many old people are capable of doing various things which other educated men don’t know. So people can learn many things from their practical knowledge and experience.

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To know a fly-Four levels

To know a fly

Four Levels of Interaction By Vincent G.Dethier For: BBA,BBA-BI,BBA-TT,BCIS

fly

Literal Comprehension:

‘To Know A Fly’ is an essay based on scientific experiment written by Vincent Gaston Dethier.He was (1915 – 1993) ,an American psychologist and entomologist.He was a pioneer in the study of insect-plant interactions.It has presented the view that every scientific experiment is to be carried out consciously and carefully because any experiment carried randomly may not give appropriate and acceptable result. The experiment always begins with act of faith over reality, cause and effect relationship, discovery by reason, our senses. It continues with an observation and a question. The scientist in fact alters the condition, observes a result and draws a conclusion. Therefore a man willing to conduct an experiment needs to be careful and conscious enough in this concern, since the most commonly committed scientific sin is the lack of proper experimental control.
The text presents one example of carefully carried out experiment and the next the randomly conducted experiment. Once a gentleman by cutting off flea’s hind legs draws a conclusion that it hears from the hind legs since it couldn’t jump despite his order and he had already tried by amputating other parts of it. Similarly the next man concluded from his experiment that the intoxicating quality lies in glass not in water and even not in other alcoholic substances like bourbon, rum, scotch, rye, and gin and so on since all these substances were mixed with water. This kind of confusing correlation with cause and effect gives rise to fallacy and scientific sin.
Finally, the text presents the extraordinary capacity of fly to test and identify the sweetness in substance. This is the most fruitful experiment conducted through shrewd observation. It extends out its proboscis and tastes the food item to ensure either it is sweet or not. It is too much sensitive. It tastes the food through the proboscis.

Interpretation:

As a piece of scientific writing, the text is trying to present the importance of experiment and alerts that one must be careful and conscious to carry out the experiment. Otherwise, it harms more than it helps. Similarly, presenting an experiment on fly informs the reader that nature has given every creature with own distinct qualities. In this, it is useless to regard human as superior creature in the world.

Critical Thinking:

The text presents the ideas on scientific experiment and its importance. Naturally, one must be conscious and careful but in every experiment such excessive consciousness doesn’t work. Since many scientific discoveries are taking suddenly and in random experiments. No scientist works being fixed on his invention.Whatever the discoveries take place, it is sudden and strange.

Assimilation:

As I went through the story, it really impressed me. I used to think that experiment is just to get the conclusion and they are easy. Everything is there and to experiment is to mix the things and observe them carefully. But now I know that to perform experiment needs a lot of care and knowledge. More than that, after reading it, I came to know and accept the fact that nature has equally empowered its creatures with distinct qualities.

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How Sane Are We ,Four Levels

How Sane Are We 

Four Levels of Interaction By Anuradha Chaudhary For: BBA,BBA-BI,BBA-TT,BCIS 

Literal Comprehension:

This essay is written by Anuradha Chaudhary and she focuses on the consciousness of environment and need of its conservation. As we are responsible for destroying nature its conservation is also our responsibility. We should not destroy anything in nature, they are not only for us; they are the gifts handed over to give or hand over our many generations. But there is vast destruction of nature in the world but less effort for saving and conserving nature. We think ecology and politics are closely linked although many people do not see any link between them. As elections are held to select our representatives, the representatives, whom we trust best, become ministers. So we easily think that they make only good decisions always for all but our representatives or ministers are wrong; they do just opposite; they think only their benefit, chair, party and vote. Many people think that political leaders are trustworthy so, who trust them cannot believe that they are irresponsible towards nature.

Chloroflurocarbons(CFC) are man-made chemicals. They cause 20% of the greenhouse effect. They cause to deplete the ozone layer which is like a shield around earth. This absorbs 99% of the sun’s ultraviolet rays. If the rays reach the earth, they will affect ecosystem, decrease agricultural productivity, weaken human immune system, cause skin cancer and eye cataracts. In 1920 CFCs were first made to use in refrigerators, spray cans, computer chips, air-conditioners etc. In 1974, the world’s scientists disclosed the fact that there is link between CFCs and the ozone layer, but nations and CFCs producers turned deaf ears towards the warning. Only in 1985, it was believed that there is a link between CFCs and the ozone layer. Then the world’s nations signed a document to stop CFCs productivity by 2006.

The decision of phasing out CFCs globally is a rational decision but the writer does not think they are honest to the decision. They could stop the use of CFCs immediately and use cheaper and harmless chemicals to substitute CFCs. But their decisions lack implementation. By allowing people to use CFCs for some more times, we are causing destruction to ourselves. Here the writer relates the science fiction “War with the Newts” by Karel Capek. Where the newts are exceptionally clever water animals which could give men pearls. Men gave them knives to keep themselves safe from sharks. Their number increased so largely that they even went to the country to live and endangered the existence of human beings. Like the newts we are destroying our own dwelling and worsening our environment and air.

Interpretation:

We human being is considered the supreme creature of all the other many creatures in the world; we think ourselves wise, witty, clever, intelligent, enthusiastic and responsible creature. But, we are so sane that we destroy our own home and ourselves not only other creatures. We think only inheritance of the natural things here and do whatever thing we like. The essay also implies that human cannot make rational decisions. Neither general people choose rational political leaders as their representatives nor do the elected representatives make right decisions in time. Moreover, they are not honest too. They are only worrying about the next election but not about the future of people and other creatures. They know that CFCs are depleting ozone layer but are not doing anything to stop the use of this harmful chemical. They make decisions but have no courage and take no initiation of implementation. Thus, we are spoiling environment by electing such leaders and they are spoiling the future of mankind.

Critical thinking:

This essay is mainly focused on environmental degradation and importance of its conservation. In this essay the writer criticizes the governments, politicians and factory owners who use harmful chemicals like chloroflurocarbons. She gives emphasis on its conservation because we are responsible for its destruction. She criticizes sharply to the leaders and the people who elect such leaders but she does not think the scientists should also be equally careful about the harmful effects of the chemical. Not only leaders and scientists all we are equally responsible for this problem and should be careful for its solution.

Assimilation:

Reading literary tests is very beneficial. Literature gives not only pleasure or entertainment but a vast knowledge about different fields. As I read this essay, I got a lot of information from this essay. I knew about the ozone layer and its usefulness. I also knew the bad sides of air conditioners and refrigerators. Before this I was careless of these things; I would not feel anything while using AC and fridge, but now I feel I am guilty of polluted nature when I use these appliances. I have seen many people suffering from skin cancer, respiratory problems and other many diseases. This might have been caused by the ultra violet rays of the sun and the depleted ozone layer. Now I will try to convince all my relatives and families about these problems.

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