Monthly Archive March 2016

Major Corporate Social Responsibility | Principles of Management

downloadMajor Corporate Social Responsibility

Organizations have great responsibility for the welfare of the society and the environmental protection. The major corporate social responsibility are as follows:

Responsibility towards Shareholders:

Shareholders invest capital in the business and bear risks .They want return of their investment from the business.So,they have interest in the development and prosperity of their business.Therefore,the business organization has responsibility toward them as they invest money and grow business.The amin responsibilities of business towars shareholders are proper utilization of investment ,fair dividends,fair interest,providing up-to-date information of financial transactions,maximize value of investment ,allowing them to participate in planning and policy making,etc.

Responsibility toward customers:

Customer satisfaction is the ultimate goal of business organization.They are the key source of earnings.Business organization need to satisfy their customers by producing goods and services of their choice and demand .Business cannot be successful unless customers are satisfied.The responsibilities of business toward customers are providing quality products at reasonable price,adequate quantity when needed,good behaviour,avoid unfair practices like black marketing,provide after-sales service ,etc

Responsibility toward employees:                                                                                                      

The success of business largely depends on motivated employees .They are the assets of the business and their welfare and wellbeing should be the main concerned of the management. They should be treated as a part of the organization and encouraged them to produce higher productivity.They should be properly trained and provide monetary and non-monetary benefits.The main responsibilities of business toward employees is to provide meaningful job and job security,to provide fair wages and other benefits,provide welfare facilities like sports ,education,medical,etc, creating favourable working environment,conducting training and development programs.

Responsibility toward government:

All business activities should be conducted within the rules and regulations of the government Government protects and controls the activities of business.It allows business organizations to operate within certain norms.Therefore,cooperation of government is essential to business sector.The business organization must fulfill the responsibilities toward the government by  following government rules and laws,pay different taxes such as VAT,income tax,custom duty ,etc,avoid monopoly and unfair trade practices,support national problems such as unemployment and poverty ,etc.

Responsibility toward Society or Community:

Business Organizations perform their business activities in the society. Their success also depends on wellbeing of the whole society.Therefore,business organizations have some responsibilities toward society or community.They are to create employment opportunities to the people,to maintain environmental ecology,proper utilization of society’s resoures,to promote the program of community welfare services,to maintain the social and cultural values etc.

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Forces Affecting Organization-Environment relationships | Principles Of Management

images (15)Forces Affecting Organization-Environment relationships

The major forces that affect Organization-Environment relationships are as follows:

 

 

Economic Environment :

The economic  environment of business is largely determined by the economic system of the country .A number of economic factors such as economic planning and control,national income ,industrial policies,monetary and fiscal policies,investments,savings,inflation,and international economic activities reflect economic development. The economic environment dramatically affects companies’ ability to function effectively and influences their strategic choices.

Political Environment:

Political Environment is related to management of public affairs. Political environment mainly refers to the political structure,composition of bureaucracy,and ideology of the ruling government .Political philosophy can be democratic or autocratic.Democracy provides greater role to private sector.The political system that exist in a country influence business organization.

Legal Environment:

Legal Environment refers to all the legal principles and polices that affect Organizations’ activities.It is the framework of laws ,regulations and court decision intended to encourage and control business activities.Thus, government can affect business opportunities through tax laws ,economic policies,and international trade rulings.

Socio-cultural Environment:

Socio-cultural forces consists of the attitudes ,beliefs and values of individuals and groups in society.As the values,customs and tastes change in the society ,the managers must also change his organizational pattern.As society change,our life also changes by new things. Life styles and social values promote social change.It affects product choice.

Technological Environment:

Technology consists of skills,operating methods,system and tools that are designed to make work more efficient.It also largely influences organization by creating changes in jobs,skills ,life styles ,products production methods and processes.Information technology ,automation ,computerization,and  new materials have influenced organization.

 

 

 

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Fundamentals of Sociology |BBA 3rd Sem|Syllabus

download (6)SOC 101 |Fundamentals of Sociology|Syllabus

Sociology is the study of social behavior or society, including its origins, development, organization, networks, and institutions. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order, disorder, and change.

 

Course Objectives

The course aims to provide students with basic sociological concepts that will help students understand various ideas on society, culture, group, organizations, etc.  By knowing all these concepts, students’ knowledge on organization, business and management will be enhanced and such that they will be able to apply their enriched knowledge in their future career and endeavor.

Course Description

This course presents basic ideas and foundations of sociology through an argument of various sociological variables, terms, terminology and subject matter. The course includes, besides an introduction to sociology, basic sociological ideas like society, culture, norms, values group. It comprises of social institution like religion, family, and others, which help students understand more about existing social structure. More importantly, course has tried to explain the basic sociological theories, social change and some emerging social perception, understanding on sexuality, crime and deviance. Moreover, Max Weber’s theory of bureaucracy, group and group behavior, sociology theories of organization are not less important to include in the course, since they will entail a nexus between sociology and management and basic sociological tenet.

Course Outcomes

 By the completion of this course, the students should be able to:

  • know the basic ideas on the emergence of sociology, methods of study, subject matter  and nature of sociology;
  • exhibit the understanding on the relationship of sociology with other social sciences and business-management;
  • express the knowledge on foundations of sociology like society, culture, group, norms, values, etc., along with ideas on sexuality, crime, etc;
  • analyze various social institutions like family, economic institutions, religion;
  • understand and evaluate basic sociological theories and it connotation to management;
  • can discuss social stratification to view how societies are divided into different groups on the basis of power, prestige and property and create inequality;
  • evaluate the ideas of social change and socialization.

Course Contents

Unit I: Introduction to sociology                                                                                6 hours

Meaning of sociology; nature of sociology; subject matter of sociology; emergence of sociology and methods of sociology along with brief description on the contribution of founders of sociology; Relationship of sociology with economics, psychology, political science and business-management.

Unit II: Theoretical perspective in sociology                                                  8 hours

What is perspective?

Functionalism: Meaning, context, basic tenets or key assumptions:  Functionalism of Emile Durkheim and Talcott Parsons (Basic ideas with criticism).

Interactionism: Meaning, context, basic tenets or key assumptions : Interactionism of George Herbert Mead and Herbert Blumer (Basic ideas and criticism).

Conflict theory: Meaning, context, basic tenets or key assumptions: Conflict theory of Karl Marx and Max Weber (basic ideas and criticism).

Post modernism: meaning, context, basic tenets or key assumptions: Post Modernism of Fredric Jameson and Jean Baudrillard (basic ideas and criticism).

Unit III: The foundations of society                                                              14 hours

Society: Meaning, Definition, nature and types (Industrial and pre-industrial).

Culture: Meaning, definition, features and functions; types (material and non-material); sub-culture (youth, ethnic and age sub culture vis-a-vis society and organization, e.g. Consumer behavior, organizational culture)

Norms, values, status and role: meaning, definition and types; linkage to business and management

Socialization:  Meaning, definition and function of socialization; agents of socialization; types of socialization (primary and secondary socialization); theories of primary socialization; personality and socialization

Group and organization:  Group- meaning, definition and features; types (various types with focusing on primary and secondary groups). Organization- meaning, definition (view from founding fathers of sociology); formal and informal organization; Max Weber’s Bureaucracy; sociology of organization; work and leisure; group dynamics; dynamics of social capital

Sexuality: understanding sexuality; sexual issues (pornography, teen pregnancy, prostitution and sexual violence, sexual abuse)

Crime and deviance: Meaning, definition and difference between them

Conformity and sanction: meaning and definition

Unit IV:  Social stratification                                                                         7 hours

Meaning, definition and features; Functional and conflict approach to social stratification; Stratification and inequality; Class, caste, ethnicity and gender as various aspects of social stratification- Meaning, definition, features and Nepalese context.

Unit V: Social Institution                                                                                           7 hours

Meaning, definition ,features, function and types (as required by subject matter):  family, marriage, polity, economic institution, religion ( along with dysfunction), educational institution; Conflict and functional approach to religion and education; Nepalese context.

Unit VI: Social change                                                                                               6 hours

Meaning, definition and features; Factors of social change; Conflict approach to social change; Application and experiences in Nepalese society.

Basic Text

Horton, P. B., & Haunt, C. L. Sociology.  New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill.

References

Bhandari, U. et al. Sociology for Management. Kathmandu: Buddha Academic Enterprises.

Abraham, M. F. Contemporary Sociology: an introduction to concepts and theories. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Abraham, M. F. Modern Sociological Theory: An Introduction. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Etzioni, A. ModernOrganization. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India. Pvt. Ltd.

Haralombos, M., & Heald, R. M. Society: Themes and Perspective. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Inkeles, A. What is Sociology?  An Introduction to Discipline and Profession. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd.

Macionis, J. J. Sociology. New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.

Ritzer, G. Modern Sociological Theory. USA: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Solomon, M. R. Consumer Behaviour: Buying, Having and Being (8th ed.). New Delhi: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.

Turner, J. H. The Structure of Sociological Theory. Jaipur: Rawat publication.

 

 

 

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Introductory Macroeconomics | Syllabus

download (6)Introductory Macroeconomics | Syllabus

Macroeconomics is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole, rather than individual markets. 

 

 

Course Objectives

This course is designed to reinforce and expand students’ understanding of the basic macroeconomic theory. It aims to provide students with an introductory-level treatment of economic theory with emphasis on the technique beside the results. Besides, it helps the students to master the basic macroeconomic tools used by the prominent economists in practice, and makes them able to apply these tools in a variety of contexts to set up and solve macroeconomic problems.

Course Description

The first two units of this course examine the two fundamental macroeconomic topics, viz. national income & employment. Then the course focuses on various macroeconomic theories, viz. consumption, saving and investment functions and macroeconomic equilibrium as well as macroeconomic issues and policies viz. inflation, trade cycle and fiscal monetary policies. The major concentrations of this course are: national income and employment, consumption, saving and investment, aggregate demand and aggregate supply, determinations of macroeconomic and general equilibrium of an economy.

Course Outcomes

By the end of this course, students should be able to:

  • explain basic macroeconomic terminology (as e.g. national income, aggregate demand, aggregate supply, trade cycle, inflation etc.) in a comprehensive and intuitive way;
  • describe and justify the main assumptions behind simple macroeconomic models as e.g. the aggregate demand and aggregate supply model, saving investment equality model, etc;
  • illustrate diagrammatically these models and perform policy experiments;
  • derive numerically macroeconomic instruments and learn how to use them in practice (e.g. national income, multiplier, inflation etc.);
  • solve algebraically simple macroeconomic models in order to determine the equilibrium economic variables, and reflect on the solutions with a critical mind;
  • use economic intuition to explain topical policy issues (e.g. fiscal policy, monetary policy and fiscal-monetary mix).

Course Contents

Unit I: Nature and Scope of Macroeconomics                                                           4 hours

Meaning and Concept of macroeconomics; Basic issues in macroeconomics: unemployment, inflation, business cycles, and economic growth; Scope and importance of macroeconomics; Distinction and interdependence between microeconomics and macroeconomics.

Unit II: National Income: Concept and Measurement                                               10 hours

Circular Flow of Income and Expenditure: two, three and four sector economy, Meaning, definitions and various concept of National income, Methods of computing/measuring National income, Difficulties in the measurement of National income, Importance of National income analysis.              

Unit III: Theories of Employment                                                                              5 hours

Classical theory of employment and output, Summary of the classical model (including Say’s law and Quantity theory of money), Principle of Effective Demand: Aggregate demand price, Aggregate supply price, Determination of effective demand, Importance of effective demand, Repudiation of Say’s law and Full Employment Theory.

Unit IV: Consumption Function, Saving Function and Investment Functions          7 hours

Meaning of consumption function, Keynes’s psychological law of consumption, Concept of MPC and APC, Determinants of the consumption function, Measures to raise the propensity to consume, Saving function, Meaning of capital and investment, Types of investment, Determinants of investment, Marginal Efficiency of Capital (MEC), Marginal Efficiency of Investment (MEI); Relation between MEC and the MEI.

Unit V: Macro-Economic Equilibrium                                                                        12 hours

Meaning and concepts goods market, Determination of equilibrium level of income in two-, three- and four- sector economy (Goods market equilibrium) with aggregate expenditure and aggregate output, Equilibrium with saving and investment, Concept of multiplier, Determination of multiplier in two-, three- and four-sector economy, Leakages of multiplier, Importance of multiplier. IS and LM Function: General Equilibrium of Product and Money Markets, The product (goods) market, Deriving the IS Curve, The money market, Deriving the LM Curve, Shift in the IS and LM functions, Changes in general equilibrium, Simultaneous shift in the IS and LM function, Derivation of aggregate demand curve (AD), Derivation of aggregate supply curve (AS), Equilibrium with AD-AS, change in macroeconomic equilibrium with shift in AD and AS.

Unit VI: Macro-Economic Phenomenon and Policies                                                10 hours

Inflation: Meaning and measures of inflation, inflationary gap, Causes of inflation, Effects of Inflation, The Phillips curve: The short-run relationship between unemployment and inflation, Business Cycles: Meaning of business cycles (economic fluctuations), Phases of a typical business cycle: Recovery; prosperity; recession, and depression, Counter cyclical measures, Fiscal and Monetary Policies: Objectives, tools and policy measures in developing countries.

 

 Basic Texts

Mankiw, N. G. Macroeconomics. Dryden Press, Harcourt Brace College Publishers. (Indian Edition)

Samuelson, P. A. Macroeconomics.  New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill.

References

Donbush, R., Fisher, S. & Startz, R. Macroeconomics, New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill.

Salvatore, D. Macroeconomics. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Jhingan, M. L. Macroeconomics. New Delhi: Vrinda Publications.

Dwivedi,  D. N. Macroeconomics: Theory and Policy . New Delhi: Tata McGraw   Hill

 

 

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Essentials of Finance | Syllabus

download (6)

FIN 131 Essentials of Finance

Finance is the science that describes the management, creation and study of money, banking, credit, investments, assets and liabilities

 

 

 

Course Objectives

This course aims to provide students with an understanding of fundamental concepts of business finance.  It will lay the foundation in students for their specialization in finance and equip them adequately to undertake financial analysis and decisions. 

Course Description

The course provides students opportunity to understand fundamental concepts of business finance and their application in financial decisions in business. This course focuses on the fundamentals of business finance, especially, introduction to finance, financial statement analysis, financial environment, fundamentals of risk and return, time value of money, cost of capital, bond valuation, stock valuation, and investment decision. Through lectures, readings and case studies students learn essentials of business finance and acquire skills for financial decision making. 

Course Outcomes

By the end of this course, students should be able to:understand fundamental nature of business finance;  understand the financial environment and its implication in financial decisions;interpret the financial statements and carry out financial analysis of a corporation;understand the concept of risk and return, and measure them for individual assets and portfolio of assets;understand the concept of time value of money, gain the skill of computation, and apply them in solving business problems involving time value of money;compute yields on securities and value them;conceptualize component cost, overall cost and marginal cost of capital, and gain the skill on the calculation of these costs; andunderstand the basics of investment decision and gain the fundamental skills of making investment decision.

Course Contents

Unit 1: Introduction                                                                                                    4 hours

Meaning of finance; Basic areas of finance; Finance   functions; Finance in the organization structure of a firm; Forms of business organizations; The goals of financial management; Relationship with other functional departments; Career in finance.

Unit 2: The Financial Environment: Markets, Institutions, Interest Rates and Taxes           

5 hours

Financial markets: concept and types; Financial institutions: concept, role in funds transfer, and types; Interest rates:  level of interest rate, determinants of market interest rates, the term structure of interest rate and yield curve; Taxes: corporate tax, marginal tax and average tax.

Unit 3: Financial Statement Analysis                                                             6 hours

Financial statements: balance sheet, income statement and cash flows statement; Modifying financial data for managerial decisions: net cash flows, operating assets and operating capital, net operating profit, free cash flows, market value added and economic value added; Financial analysis: types of ratios, Du-Pont identity, use and limitation of ratio analysis; Common-size financial statements.

Unit 4: Risk and Return                                                                                              6 hours

Concept and measurement of return: rupee return, percentage return, average return, expected of return, required rate of return, nominal and real rate of return; Concept and measurement of risk: concept, types and measures of risk; Portfolio risk and return: concept of portfolio, portfolio risk and portfolio return, calculation of portfolio risk and return; Capital assets pricing model: estimation of required rate of return, the security market line. 

Unit 5: Time Value of Money                                                                         5 hours

Future value and compounding: single period and multiple period, compound interest; Present value and discounting: single period and multiple period; Present value versus future value;  Determining the discount rate; Finding the number of periods; Future value and present values of multiple cash flows; Present value for annuity; Annuity payments; Finding the number of payments; Finding the rate; Future value for annuity; Annuities due;  Perpetuities: present value of perpetuity; The compounding rates: the effect of compounding periods; Effective annual rate and annual percentage rate; Amortization of loan.

Unit 6: Bond and Stock Valuation                                                                             8 hours

Concept and features of bond; Bond valuation: perpetual bond, zero coupon bond, coupon bond with a finite maturity, bond valuation with semi-annual interest; Discount and premium bond; and Bond yields: rate of return, current yield and capital gain yield, yield to maturity, Yield on call.

Features of common stock; Cash flows from common stock; Stock valuation for definite holding period; Valuation of stock for indefinite holding period: zero growth, constant growth and non-constant growth; Features of preferred stock; Valuation of preferred stock.

Unit 7: Cost of Capital                                                                                               4 hours

Concept and uses of cost of capital; Cost of equity: the dividend growth model approach, the SML approach; Cost of debt and preferred stock; the weighted average cost of capital: the capital structure weight; and marginal cost of capital.

Unit 8: Capital Investment Decisions                                                             10 hours

Concept of investment decisions; Generating investment project proposal; Process of capital budgeting decision; Classification of capital projects; Project cash flows: relevant cash flows, the stand-alone principle; Incremental cash flows: sunk cost, opportunity cost, net working capital, financing costs and other issues; Investment criteria: net present value, the payback rules, discounted payback period, the average accounting rate of return, the internal rate of return, and profitability Index.

Basic Texts

Ross, S. A., Westerfield, R. W., & Jordan, B. D. (2012). Fundamentals of Corporate Finance (9th ed). New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.

Brigham, E. F., & Ehrhardt, M. C. (2008). Financial Management: Theory and Practice (12th ed). Delhi: Clengage Learning.

References

Brealey, R.A., Myers S.C., Alen, F., & Mohanty, P. (2012). Principles of Corporate Finance (10th ed). New Delhi:  McGraw-Hill Education (India).

Van Horne, J. C., & Wachowicz, J. R. (2009). Fundamentals of Financial Management, (13th ed). New Delhi: PHI Learning.

Paudel, R. B., Baral, K. J., Gautam, R. R. Rana, S. B. & Dahal K. B. (2013). Fundamentals of Financial Management. (3rd ed) Kathmandu: Asmita Book Publishers and Distributors.

Pradhan, R. S. (2014). Financial Management. (5th ed) Kathmandu: Buddha Education Publishers.

 

 

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Business Statistics | Syllabus

download (6)SIT 101 Business Statistics

Business statistics is the science of good decision making in the face of uncertainty and is used in many disciplines such as financial analysis, econometrics, auditing, production and operations including services improvement, and marketing research.

 

Course Objectives

The aim of the course is to develop competency and ability to use statistical techniques in conducting research and project work. The emphasis of the course is more on interpretation of results and understanding of the strengths and limitations of different statistical measures. 

Course Description

This course has a business focus. The course covers fundamentals of descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The contents include data summaries and descriptive statistics; introduction to a statistical computer package; Probability: distributions, expectation, variance, covariance, statistical inference of univariateand bivariate data for hypothesis testing. 

Course Outcomes

By the end of this course students would be able tounderstand and use the descriptive and inferential statistical tools used in business decision making ,select  an appropriate graph to describe a distribution,calculate and interpret the shape, center and spread of a distribution,understand the problem of inference when working with the results from random samples, andanalyze the data using excel.

Course Contents

Unit I Introduction                                                                                                     5 hours

Basic concepts of statistics, Terminologies associated with statistics such as populations and samples, Variables (Dependent and independent only) , Types and sources of data , Descriptive and inferential statistics,  Data processing (editing and coding), Applications of statistics in business and management.

 

Unit II Describing Data: Graphs and Tables                                                  6 hours

Data array, Stem and leaf Display, Frequency tables, Histograms, Polygon, Cumulative Polygon, Scatter plots, Simple Bar and Pie charts, Cross tabulation

 

Unit III Describing Data: Summary Measures                                                           10 hours

Central Location:  Mean, Median and Mode

Non Central Location: Quartiles, Deciles and Percentiles

Dispersion: Range, Interquartile range, Variance,   Standard deviation, Coefficient of variation, Index for qualitative variation (IQV)

Shape: Crude measure (comparison of mean, median, and mode), Five number summary,                                  Box plot

Inequality Measure: Gini concentration ratio

 

Unit IV Basics of Probability Theory                                                             5 hours

Basic concepts, Counting rule, Objective and subjective probability, Marginal and joint probability, Addition rule, Conditional probability, Multiplication rules.

 

Unit V  Probability Distributions                                                                                10 hours

Discrete probability distribution (Binomial and Poisson distribution and mean and standard deviation of their distributions), Continuous probability distribution: Normal distribution, Normal approximation of Binomial and Poisson distribution

 

Unit VI Estimation and Hypothesis Testing                                                  12 hours

Concept of estimation, Confidence intervals, confidence intervals for means and proportions        (one sample case only ), Test of significance, p-value approach to hypothesis testing, connection between confidence intervals and hypothesis testing, comparing two means (two sample z and t- test procedures), and comparing two proportions.

 

Basic Books

Davis, G., & Pecar, B. Business Statistics using Excel. New Delhi: Oxford University Press

Berenson, M. L. & David M. L.  Basic Business Statistics: Concepts and Applications.  Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall of USA.

 

References

Levin, R. I., & David S. R. Statistics for Management.  New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India

Allbright, S. C., Winston, W., & Zappe, C. J.  Data Analysis and Decision Making with Microsoft Excel.  Pacific Grove: Duxubury Press.

Argyrous, G.  Statistics for Research with a Guide to SPSS . New Delhi: Sage South India Edition

Whigham, D. Business Data Analysis using Excel. New Delhi: Oxford University Press

 

 

 

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Business Communication I | Syllabus

download (6)ENG 201 Business Communication I 

Business communication is any form of communication, verbal or nonverbal, that is used to relay a message, promote a product or service or share information.The sharing of information between people within an enterprise that is performed for the commercial benefit of the organization. In addition, business communication can also refer to how a company shares information to promote its product or services to potential consumers.

 

Course Objectives

The objectives of the course are to bring the world of business into the classroom provide skills and strategies for different business scenarios help students to communicate confidently in everyday situations focus on key expressions and then put the new language into practice enable independent learning at a pace to suit each student

Course Description

This course in business English gives students the communication skills they need for immediate use at work. It helps those who need to communicate better in English at work, by teaching a range of business communication skills. It features video clips for every unit, including documentary clips, authentic interviews and dramatized scenarios showcasing business communication skills. The Interactive Workbook on the DVD-ROM will also be available online for teachers who want to be able to communicate and collaborate with students outside of class. It combines a communicative approach with authentic business material and digital multi-media, to give in-work and pre-work students relevant and immediate communication skills. A fairly detailed treatment of the theory and practice of technical communication geared to the Nepali experience is an important component of this course.

 

Course Contents

The contents of the course include:

  • Working with words
  • Business communication skills
  • Speaking
  • Language at work
  • Case study
  • Communication and technical communication
  • Audience analysis
  • Technical communication competencies and process
  • Organization, design and graphics
  • Technical writing style

 

Teaching Method

Video clips can be used as focal points of discussion, to develop students’ listening skills, introduce new vocabulary and teach the business communication skills that students need in context. Language and skills practice can be given through activities in the Student’s Book and the Workbook (available on DVD-ROM ). It is suggested that student-centered activities should be encouraged with the teacher acting as a facilitator.

 

Basic Texts

Hughes, John, and Jon Naunton. Business Result: Intermediate Student’s Book. Oxford: OUP, 2007. (containing interactive workbook with video)

Adhikari, Dharma, and Phanindra Upadhyaya. Technical Communication I. Kathmandu: Buddha, 2013.  

 

References

Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Eighth Edition. Oxford: OUP, 2010.

Hughes, John. Business Result: Intermediate Teacher’s Book. Oxford: OUP, 2008.

Leech, G.N., and Jan Svartvik.  A Communicative Grammar of English. Third Edition. London: Longman, 2002.

 

 

 

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