Monthly Archive January 2016

We are Breaking the Silence About Death | Four Levels

roWe are Breaking the Silence About Death
Four Levels | Daniel Goleman (1964)

 

Literal Comprehension:
Elisabeth Kublor – Rose work with the dying people in the mid 60 ‘s. Before that time the topic to death was banded. Now death has become a fashionable subject. Through her best selling book ” on death and dying” she has alert a new way of handling dying. She has suggested that the people should die in their own homes rather than in a strange hospital. After working with the dying people for a long time, she has pointed out five psychological stages people usually experience when they know that they are going to die soon. These stages are denial, anger or rage, bargaining, depression and acceptance. These reaction are not limited to dying but can take place with any change or lost.

Interpretation:
The dying person denies or says “No” when he first knows that he is going to die. The denial makes it easy for him to bear the force of death. At the unconscious level, a person never believes that he will die. From their refusal he begins to hope. Kublor Rose suggest that we should take about death with the patient and arrange to complete all possible things.

Critical Thinking:
This passage has clearly expressed how the topic death has become a fashionable subject. But The Behavior of dying person is at the unconscious level. This stages or levels are denial, anger or rage, bargaining, depression and acceptance.

Assimilation:
When a patient stop denying, he begins to be angry. He is angry seeing other healthy people. When his anger becomes less, he starts to bargaining with god. He wants to become good if he is given some more time to live. After he has accepted his death partially, he becomes depressed. He feels sorry for the past mistakes or incomplete tasks. He want to passed time in isolation. Finally he accept death peacefully and he is not worried about making his life longer. He settles everything. His own diseases also does not worry him. He enjoy the present moment without thinking of the future. He lives the full life.

 

Difference between Periodic and Perpetual Inventory System

accDifference between Periodic and Perpetual Inventory System

A periodic inventory system is an inventory system that records inventory levels at specific points in time. These points in time are usually at the end of accounting periods. Periodic systems use physical count audits, where employees actually count each and every item in the store to get an accurate inventory level. This amount is then compared to sales reports and purchase receipts to verify the amount of goods sold and to see if there are any discrepancies in numbers.

On the other hand, a perpetual system is an inventory system that records inventory into the accounting system on a continuous basis. This type of system relies heavily on automation to instantly track purchases and sales, and update the accounting system immediately. When an item is purchased, it is automatically recorded in the accounting system as an inventory item.

 

Periodic Inventory System Perpetual Inventory System  
In periodic inventory inventory is valued at the end of the period that may be end of the month ,end of the half year ,end of the year,etc. In perpetual inventory system inventory is valued after each nad every transaction.  
In this system inventory account and cost of goods sold are non-existent until the physical count at the end of the year. In this system account and balance of thecosts of goods sold and inventory account exist all the time.  
In this system purchases account is used to record purchases. In this system no individual purchases account but the purchases are recorded in the inventory account.  
In this system purchases return account is used to record purchase returns. In this system no individual purchases account but  recorded in the inventory account.  
In this system Cost of goods sold or cost of sale is computed from Ending Inventory. In this system Cost of goods sold or cost of sale is reduced when there is a sale.  
In this system for goods returned by customers there is no inventories entries. In this system for goods returned by customers are recorded by reducing the Cost of goods sold  and adding back to inventories.  
Closing Entries are only required in periodic inventory system to update inventory and cost of goods sold.

Perpetual inventory system does not require closing entries for inventory account.

 

 

Tags

Difference between Capital And Revenue Expenditure

accDifference between Capital And Revenue Expenditure

Capital expenditure includes costs incurred on the acquisition of a fixed asset and any subsequent expenditure that increases the earning capacity of an existing fixed asset.The cost of acquisition not only includes the cost of purchases but also any additional costs incurred in bringing the fixed asset into its present location and condition (e.g. delivery costs).Capital expenditure, as opposed to revenue expenditure, is generally of a one-off kind and its benefit is derived over several accounting periods. Capital Expenditure may include Purchase costs (less any discount received),Delivery costs,Legal charges,Installation costs,Up gradation costs,Replacement costs,etc.

Revenue expenditure incurred on fixed assets include costs that are aimed at ‘maintaining’ rather than enhancing the earning capacity of the assets. These are costs that are incurred on a regular basis and the benefit from these costs is obtained over a relatively short period of time. For example, a company buys a machine for the production of biscuits. Whereas the initial purchase and installation costs would be classified as capital expenditure, any subsequent repair and maintenance charges incurred in the future will be classified as revenue expenditure. This is so because repair and maintenance costs do not increase the earning capacity of the machine but only maintains it (i.e. machine will produce the same quantity of biscuits as it did when it was first put to use).Revenue costs therefore comprise of Repair costs,Maintenance charges,etc.

Basis Capital Expenditure Revenue Expenditure
Occurance Capital Expenditure is incurred to acquire or to improve permanent asset. Revenue Expenditure is incurred in normal courses of Business.
Effect It increases the value of assets and earning capacity. It is incurred for maintaining earning capacity of the business and up keeps 0f the fixed assets.
Benefits It provides benifits over several years. It is consumed within the accounting year.
Nature It is non-recurring in nature. It is recurring in nature.
Presentation It is shown in the balance sheet of asset side. It is charged in revenue account ie; income statement.

Tags

Difference between Accounts Payable and Notes Payable

accDifference between Accounts Payable and Notes Payable

 

An accounts payable is a liability that is short term, usually between two weeks and one month, while notes payable is a liability that has a longer term, the shortest of which is six months.Accounts payable is based on good faith and requires no written agreement other than a sales invoice while notes payable requires a written contract which must be signed by the debtor and which states the terms of the account.Accounts payable is not charged with interest or other fees while notes payable have a specific interest rate and service charges.Notes payable are usually offered by banks and other financial institutions while accounts payable are offered by suppliers of goods and services.

Basis Accounts  Pyable Notes Payable
Definition  Accounts Payable is the obligation that a business owes to its creditors for buying goods and services.  

Note payable is a written promissory note under which  a borrower obtains a specific amount of money from a lender and promises to pay it back with interest over a predetermined time period. 

Mode of agreement

Accounts Payable is an informal and verbal agreement.

Notes Payable is an formal and written agreement.
Origin It originates from the purchase of tradable items or inventories. It originates from the purchase of tradable items or inventories and it may also evolve in case of purchase of long-lived assets or borrowing or to satisfy the existing obligation.
Terms There is no specific terms such as maturity period ,interest rate included with accounts payable. There is specific terms such as maturity period ,interest rate included with notes payable.
Interest There is no interest associated with the accounts payable. Interest is explicitly or implicitly involved with notes payable.
Time It is a short term liability. It may be short-term or long term liability.
Risk of custom
er
It is created in case of low risk customer. It is created in case of high risk customer.
Possibility Accounts payable can be converted into notes payable. Notes payable can be never converted into accounts payable.

Tags,

Process Of Memory | General Psychology

Process Of Memory | General Psychology

memory processMemory is essentially the capacity for storing and retrieving information. Three processes are involved in memory: encoding, storage, and retrieval. All three of these processes determine whether something is remembered or forgotten.

1) Encoding

Processing information into memory is called encoding. People automatically encode some types of information without being aware of it. For example, most people probably can recall where they ate lunch yesterday, even though they didn’t try to remember this information. However, other types of information become encoded only if people pay attention to it. College students will probably not remember all the material in their textbooks unless they pay close attention while they’re reading.

There are several different ways of encoding verbal information:

  • Structural encoding focuses on what words look like. For instance, one might note whether words are long or short, in uppercase or lowercase, or handwritten or typed.
  • Phonemic encoding focuses on how words sound.
  • Semantic encoding focuses on the meaning of words. Semantic encoding requires a deeper level of processing than structural or phonemic encoding and usually results in better memory.

2) Storage

After information enters the brain, it has to be stored or maintained. To describe the process of storage, many psychologists use the three-stage model proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin. According to this model, information is stored sequentially in three memory systems: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

Sensory Memory

Sensory memory stores incoming sensory information in detail but only for an instant. The capacity of sensory memory is very large, but the information in it is unprocessed. If a flashlight moves quickly in a circle inside a dark room, people will see a circle of light rather than the individual points through which the flashlight moved. This happens because sensory memory holds the successive images of the moving flashlight long enough for the brain to see a circle. Visual sensory memory is called iconic memory; auditory sensory memory is called echoic memory.

Short-Term Memory

Some of the information in sensory memory transfers to short-term memory, which can hold information for approximately twenty seconds. Rehearsing can help keep information in short-term memory longer. When people repeat a new phone number over and over to themselves, they are rehearsing it and keeping it in short-term memory.

Short-term memory has a limited capacity: it can store about seven pieces of information, plus or minus two pieces. These pieces of information can be small, such as individual numbers or letters, or larger, such as familiar strings of numbers, words, or sentences. A method called chunking can help to increase the capacity of short-term memory. Chunking combines small bits of information into bigger, familiar pieces.

Example: A person confronted with this sequence of twelve letters would probably have difficulty remembering it ten seconds later, because short-term memory cannot handle twelve pieces of information: HO TB UT TE RE DP OP CO RN IN AB OW L However, these letters can be easily remembered if they’re grouped into six familiar words, because short-term memory can hold six pieces of information: HOT BUTTERED POPCORN IN A BOWL

Working Memory

Psychologists today consider short-term memory to be a working memory. Rather than being just a temporary information storage system, working memory is an active system. Information can be kept in working memory while people process or examine it. Working memory allows people to temporarily store and manipulate visual images, store information while trying to make decisions, and remember a phone number long enough to write it down.

Long-Term Memory

Information can be transferred from short-term memory to long-term memory and from long-term memory back to short-term memory.Long-term memory has an almost infinite capacity, and information in long-term memory usually stays there for the duration of a person’s life. However, this doesn’t mean that people will always be able to remember what’s in their long-term memory—they may not be able to retrieve information that’s there.

Organization of Memories

Imagine what would happen if a psychology textbook weren’t organized by section, by chapter, or in any other way. Imagine if the textbook didn’t have a table of contents or an index. If the textbook just contained lots of information in a random order, students would have difficulty finding a particular concept, such as “encoding of memory.” They’d know the information was in there somewhere, but they’d have trouble retrieving it.

Long-term memory stores much more information than a textbook, and people would never be able to retrieve the information from it if it weren’t organized in some way.

Psychologists believe one way the brain organizes information in long-term memory is by category. For example, papaya may be organized within the semantic category fruit. Categories can also be based on how words sound or look. If someone is struggling to remember the word papaya, she may remember first that it’s a three-syllable word, that it begins with the letter p, or that it ends with the letter a.

Long-term memory organizes information not only by categories but also by the information’s familiarity, relevance, or connection to other information.

 3) Retrieval

Retrieval is the process of getting information out of memory.Retrieval cues are stimuli that help the process of retrieval. Retrieval cues include associations, context, and mood.

Associations

Because the brain stores information as networks of associated concepts, recalling a particular word becomes easier if another, related word is recalled first. This process is called priming.

Example: If Tim shows his roommate a picture of sunbathers on a nude beach and then asks him to spell the word bear, the roommate may be more likely to spell bare because the picture primed him to recall that form of the word.

Context

People can often remember an event by placing themselves in the same context they were in when the event happened.

Example: If a woman loses her car keys, she may be able to recall where she put them if she re-creates in her mind exactly what she did when she last came in from parking her car.

Mood

If people are in the same mood they were in during an event, they may have an easier time recalling the event.

 

Source : sparknotes.com

 

Tags

We Are Breaking the Silence about Death