Monthly Archive August 2015

Difference between Microeconomics and Macroeconomics

Difference Between Microeconomics and Macroeconomics 

The difference between microeconomics and macroeconomics are as follows:

Basis                                                                            Microeconomics Macroeconomics

Microeconomics is originated from Greek word’MIKROS’ which means small.

Macroeconomics is originated from Greek word ‘MAKROS’ which means large.
Definition Microeconomics is the study of how individual households and firms make decisions and how they interact in markets. Macroeconomics is the study of economywide phenomena,including inflation ,unemployment and economic growth.
Theory Microeconomics is known as Price Theory. Macroeconomics is known as Income theory.(Policy Science).
Objective Microeconomics studies principles,problems and policies concerning the optimum allocation of resources with maximim satisfaction . Macroeconomics studiesthe problems,policies and principles,BOP connection,poverty reduction,etc  relating to full employment and growth of resources.
Price Microeconomics studies relative price ie; price of a particular commodity. Macroecomics studies general price ie; average price of goods and services available.
Equilibrium Microeconomics studies partial equilibrium analysis.It studies equilibrium at a particular point of time.It doesn’t consider other factor.So,regarded as a static analysis. Macroeconomicsstudies general equilibrium analysis ie; all variables changes with time.So,it is regarded as dynamic analysis.
Employment Microeconomics provides full employment equilibrium. Macroeconomics provides under employment equilibrium .
Limitation Microeconomics fails to take into account of aggregates. Macroeconomics fail to take into account of individuals.
Subject matter The subject matter of microeconomics deals with the determination of price,consumer’s equilibrium,distribution and welfare,etc. The subject matter of macroeconomics studies full employment .price level ,national income ,trade cycles,etc.
Methodology Laws of microeconomics are formulated on assumptions. Laws of macroeconomics are far from assumptions.
Scope Microeconomics has very narrow scope that is an individual market. Macroeconomics has very wide scope that is a whole nation.


Syllabus of Financial Accounting II

Syllabus of Financial Accounting II ,Pokhara University

Course Objectives

This course aims to equip students with the knowledge and skills in accounting, reporting and analyzing different items of assets, liabilities and owners’ equities. Specifically, it aims to acquaint students with the processing and reporting of major components of financial statements along with their analysis.

Course Description

This course discusses the accounting system and disclosure of major components of financial statements. Basically, it deals with recording, valuating and presenting inventory; recording, reporting and analyzing current liabilities; long term liabilities; property, plant and equipment; shareholders’ equities; and analysis of financial statements.

Course Outcomes

By the end of this course, students will be able to:

  • record, account, valuate and present the inventories and the cost of goods sold;
  • record, report and analyze account receivables and bills receivables;
  • record, report and analyze current and non-current assets and liabilities;
  • record, report and analyze property, plant and equipment;
  • record, report and analyze owners’ equity and dividends;
  • analyze financial statements using different tools.

Course Contents

Unit I: Inventories and Cost of Goods Sold                                                            7 hours

The nature of inventory; cost of goods sold model; perpetual and periodic inventory accounting system, inventory valuation and income measurement; inventory costing methods: FIFO, Weighted average & Specific identification; choice of a method; methods of inventory estimation; effect of inventory valuation method on the cost of goods sold; disclosure in the financial statements; Ratios relating to inventory management.

Unit II: Receivables                                                                                                   7 hours

Accounts receivables: accounts receivable & notes receivables; recognizing accounts receivables, valuation of accounts receivables, methods of accounting for doubtful and uncollectible debt, balance sheet presentation.

Notes receivables: interest bearing notes, non-interest bearing notes, presentation of the notes receivable and related aspects in the financial statements; Ratios relating to account receivables.

Unit III: Property, Plant and Equipment                                                               7 hours

Nature of operating assets (property, plant and equipment); acquisition costs of operating assets; concepts of capital and revenue expenditure; the capitalization process; depreciation: concepts, methods and accounting (straight line method, diminishing balance method, double declining balance method and units of production method), comparison of depreciation methods, disposal of assets and accounting for gains and loses; disclosure in the financial statements; Ratios relating to property, plant and equipment.

Unit IV: Current Liabilities                                                                          3 hours

Accounts payable; notes payable, tax payable, current portion of long term liabilities, contingent liabilities and other current liabilities; accounting procedures and balance sheet presentation; Ratios relating to current liabilities.

Unit V: Non-current Liabilities                                                                                7 hours

Bonds payable: issuance of bonds, characteristics of bonds, factors affecting bond price, premium or discount on issuance of bonds, amortization of bond premium or discount, redemption of bonds at and before maturity, disclosure in financial statements. Leases: operating and financial lease; Balance sheet presentation; Ratios relating to non-current liabilities.

  Unit VI:

Stockholders’ Equity and Dividends                                                        7 hours

Components of the stockholders’ equity section of the balance sheet; types of stocks: common and preferred, types of preferred stocks, issuance of stock, stock issued for cash and non-cash consideration and on a subscription basis, retirement of preferred stocks; accounting for treasury stock: purchase and sale, presentation in the financial statements; dividends: meaning and types of dividend-cash dividend, cash dividend for ordinary stock and preferred stock; stock dividend and stock split, disclosure in financial statements; Ratios relating to stockholders’ equity and dividend.

Unit VII: Financial

Statement Analysis                                                                   7 hours

Recap of financial statements, techniques of financial statements analysis, comparative analysis: vertical and horizontal; ratio analysis: liquidity, solvency, profitability and assets management ratios; use of ratios by investors (existing & prospective) and lenders for their decision. Basic Text Porter, G. A., & Norton, C. L. Financial Accounting: The Impact on Decision Makers. USA: The Dryden Press. References

  1. Hermanson, H. R. and Edwards, D. J. Financial Accounting:  A Business Perspective. USA: Von Hoffmann Press.
  2. Kimmel, P. D., Weygandt, J. J., &Kieso, D. E. Financial Accounting. New Delhi: Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.
  1. Narayanswamy, R. Financial Accounting: A Managerial Perspective. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.
  1. Koirala, M. P., Acharya, C., Sharma, L. P. B., Sharma, N., &Gautam, C. M. Financial Accounting. Kathmandu: Buddha Academic Enterprises.
  2. Nepal Accounting Standards (NASs)
  3. International Accounting Standards (IASs) / International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs)



Syllabus of General Psychology

Syllabus of General Psychology, BBA Second Semester,BBA-BI First semester

Course Objectives

The objective of this course is to familiarize students with the basic psychological concepts and processes to understand human mind and behavior in relation to self and others. Specifically, it provides a basic understanding of psychological science of human nature.  It familiarizes students on how biology, cognition and action influence the human behavior and personality of the individual. It helps to acquire the knowledge of different psychological processes and their effect on human cognition and behavior. Finally, it develops an understanding of how human behavior can be understood, shape, and applied in individual and group/social level.

Course Description

This course surveys the major concept, theories, and processes of basic psychology. It addresses the core psychological process as well as their importance on individual and social setting.

Course Outcomes

By the end of this course, students should be able to:

  • Know basic concepts of human psychology and the core processes related to psychology;
  • Have an idea of the major theories that explain human behavior and cognitive processes;
  • Use psychological knowledge to describe and explain human behavior in personal and social settings;
  • Apply human psychology in understanding and explaining individual and social level of behavior.

Course Contents

Unit I: Introduction to Psychology as a science of Mind and Behavior                         5 hours

Nature, modern history, of Psychology, common sense and psychology, similarities and differences with other social sciences; Perspectives of psychology (Biological perspective, cognitive perspective, behavioral perspective, Psychodynamic and humanistic perspective, Socio-cultural perspective and evolutionary perspective); Scientific method and psychological research

Unit II: Biological Basis of Behavior                                                                                 5 hours

Importance of Biology in psychological understanding of behavior, Neurons, nervous system, structure and functions of central nervous system,  Endocrine system and its importance.

Unit III: Sensation and Perception                                                                                  10 hours

Sensation: Meaning, importance, sensory threshold, habituation and adaptation; Types of sensory experiences, structure and functions of Visual and auditory sensation, Perception: definition and characteristics; Perceptual processes (Pathways in Brain and top-down and bottom-up processing), subliminal and extrasensory perception, Theoretical explanation of perceptual organization (Gestalt principles), Perceptual ambiguity and distortion. Social cognition and behavior: process of social cognition, attitude, social influence, prejudice and discrimination.

Unit IV: Learning and Memory                                                                                         9 hours

Learning:Nature of learning (Behavioral vs. cognitive, instinct, and complex forms of learning) Classical condition learning and its application; Operant conditioning learning and behavior modification and shaping, Cognitive learning (cognitive map, insight and observational learning).Memory: Memory phenomenon and basic processes (encoding, storage and retrieval), Models of memory; Parallel Distributed Processing Model and Information Processing Model, Retrieval (cues, recall, recognition, reconstruction, and automatic encoding); Forgetting: nature and causes of forgetting, memory and the brain, amnesia and false memories.

Unit V: Cognition (Thinking and Intelligence)                                                                  7 hours

Thinking: Definition and nature, component of thought (mental images, concepts, prototypes) and reasoning, thought and brain; Problem solving and decision making (preparation, production and judgment): obstacles in problem solving thinking and decision making; Creativity;  Intelligence: nature, types, and determinants of intelligence, Intelligence tests and concept of IQ. Individual differences in intelligence.

Unit VI: Motivation, Emotion and Stress                                                                           7 hours

Motivation:Nature and characteristics of motivation, Instinct, drive-reduction approach, arousal approach, incentive approach of motivation, cognitive approach to motivation; Physiological need and motivations (Hunger and sex), Socio-psychological motivation (need for achievement and power); Emotion: nature and types and functions of emotion; James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, and Schachter-Singer theories of emotion. Emotion and Health; Stress: stressor and the cost of stress, general adaptation syndrome model, psychoneuroimmunology of stress; Coping stress, style and learned helplessness,  social support;

Unit VII: Personality                                                                                                            5 hours

Nature and determinants of personality, Theories of personality: Freud’s theory;Trait theory (Allport and Cattel’ theory); Big five personality traits, evaluation; Bandura’s social cognitivetheory, evaluation; Humanistic approach; Measurement of Personality; Self-report, Projective tests, Behavioral assessment.

Basic Texts

  1. Feldman, R. S. Understanding Psychology). New Delhi: Tata McGrawHill.
  2. Ciccarelli, S. K., & Meyer, C. E. Psychology. New Delhi: Pearson Education.


  1. Zimbardo, P. G., Johnson, R. L., & McCann, V. Psychology: Core concepts. USA: Pearson Education.
  2. Lahey, B.Psychology. New Delhi.
  3. Passer, M. W., & Smith, R. E. Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior. New York: McGrawHill.



Syllabus of Introductory Microeconomics

Syllabus of Introductory Microeconomics

Course Objectives

This course is designed to reinforce and expand students’ understanding of the basic microeconomic theory. It aims to provide students with an introductory-level treatment of economic theory with emphasis on the technique besides the results. Besides, it helps the students to master the basic tools used by the prominent economists, and makes them able to apply these tools in a variety of contexts to set up and solve economic problems.

Course Description

The first three units of this course examine the two fundamental microeconomic topics, viz. the introduction to microeconomics, consumer theory and producer theory. Then the course focuses on market competition with the introduction of monopoly, oligopolistic and monopolistic competition. The major concentrations of this course are: supply and demand, consumer demand theory: preferences and choice, rationality assumptions, and budgetary constraints, producer theory: production and costs functions, market structure: perfect competition, monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly and distribution theory.

Course Outcomes

By the end of this course, students should be able to:

  • explain basic economic terminology (as e.g. opportunity costs, marginal utility, consumer’s equilibrium etc) in a comprehensive and intuitive way;
  • describe and justify the main assumptions behind simple economic models as e.g. the demand and supply model, the perfect competition model, the monopoly model, etc;
  • illustrate diagrammatically these models and perform policy experiments (e.g. introducing taxes);
  • derive numerically economic instruments and learn how to use them in practice (e.g. price elasticity, optimum commodity purchase, profit maximization, Lerner’s index etc.);
  • solve algebraically simple microeconomic models in order to determine the equilibrium economic variables, and reflect on the solutions with a critical mind;

Course Contents

Unit I: Introduction to Microeconomics                                                                  6 hours

Introduction to Economic Theory: Problem of Scarcity, Introduction to Microeconomics and Macroeconomics, Function of Microeconomic Theory, Comparative Statics and Dynamics, Positive and Normative Economics, and Fundamental Principles of Economics. 

Unit II: Theory of Consumer Behavior                                                                  10 hours

Meaning and Concept of Demand, Meaning and Concept of Supply, Law of Demand and Supply, Shifts in Demand and Supply,  Price Elasticity of Demand, Income Elasticity, Cross Price Elasticity and Price Elasticity of Supply, Determinants of Elasticity, Uses and Importance of Elasticity. Cardinal Approach of Utility, Consumer Equilibrium, Ordinal Approach of Utility, Indifference Curve, Marginal Rate of Substitution, Budget Line, Consumer’s  Equilibrium, Application of Ordinal Analysis- Separation of Substitution and Income Effect from Price Effect for Normal, Inferior and Giffen Good.

Unit III: Production and Cost                                                                                  8 hours

Short Run and Long Run Production Functions: Law of Variable Proportions, Law of Returns; Optimal Input Combination; Classification of Costs; Short Run and Long Run Cost Curves and Interrelationships. Economies of Scale: Internal and External. Revenue Curves: Optimum Size of the Firm, Factors Affecting the Optimum Size.

Unit IV: Market Structures and Pricing                                                                 8 hours

Equilibrium of the Firm and Industry: Perfect Competition, Monopoly, Monopolistic Competition, Monopoly Power, Discriminating Monopoly, Aspects of Non‐price Competition; Meaning of an Oligopolistic Behavior.

Unit V: Theory of Distribution                                                                                8 hours

Input Price and Employment under Perfect Competition and Imperfect Competition.Demand and Supply Curve of a Firm for an Input.Input Pricing under Bilateral Monopoly.Concepts of Wage Differential, Minimum Wage and Brain Drain.

Basic Texts
  1. Mankiw, N. G. Principles of Microeconomics, Dryden Press, Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
  2. Salvatore, D. Theory and Problems of Microeconomics Theory, Schaum’s Outline Series. New Delhi: Tata
  1. Salvatore, D. Principles of Microeconomics. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
  2. Koutsoyiannis, A. Modern Microeconomics. London: Macmillan Education Ltd.
  3. Dwivedi, D. N. Principles of Microeconomics. New Delhi: Pearson Education.
  4. Cowell, F. A. Microeconomics Principles and Analysis. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
  5. Watson, D. S. & Getz, M. Price Theory and its Uses.New Delhi: AITBS Publishers and Distributors.



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Introduction to Economics

Definition of Economics ,Economics is both Science and Art,Origin of Economics,Scarcity and Choice


Economics is the study of how people allocate their limited resources to their alternative uses to produce and consume goods and services to satisfy their endless wants or maximize their gains. Economics is the social science that studies how people use scarce resources to satisfy unlimited needs and wantsEconomics studies economic phenomena systematically and methodically.This approach to economic inquiry imparts economics the status of a ‘social science’.

The subject mmatter of economics continues to grow and expand in scope,size and character right from the days of its founders,Adam Smith to date.Boundaries of economics science are not yet precisely marked ,nor can it be.In the opinion of some economists,”Economics is still a very young science and many problems in it are almost untouched”(Charles Schultz) and “Economics is an unfinished science”(Zeuthen).Yet, economics is claimed to be “the oldest and best developed of the ‘social sciences’ and continues to grow in content and level of analytical sophistication.However, the mainstream economics is divided,though imperfectly,into two major;Microeconomics and Macroeconomics.  

Economics is both Science and Art:

Economics is both art and science. It is called a science because it is the scientific study of relationships between economic variables, behavior of consumers and firms, nature of market and economy, effect of change in one or more economic variables on the others and so on. The different theories, laws and principles are studied in economics. All of them are generalized and simplified on the basis of facts so as to make them easily understandable. Therefore, economics is said to be science.
Economics is an art. The different theories, laws are explained with the help of graphs, figures, tables, charts, equations etc simplifying and generalizing them. Simplification is to make them easily understandable and generalization is to make them applicable to all economies. In order to explain theories, laws and relationships between economic variables we make some assumptions. The assumptions define the conditions for the application of theories, laws and the relationships. That’s why economics is an art.

Origin of Economics:

The term economics is derived from the word “oeconomicus” by Xenophon in 431 B.C. It is derived from two words economy and science. Economy means proper utilization of resources. It means economics is the science of economy or science of proper utilization of resources. It is comprised of theories, laws, principle related to utilization of resources so as to solve the economic problems, satisfy the human wants or need and so on. However, the economics is defined in different ways by different economists. There are mainly three definitions of economics:-
a. classical or wealth definition (Adam Smith)-1776 A.D
b. neo-classical or welfare definition (Alfred Marshall )-1890 A.D
c. modern or scarcity and choice definition (Lionel Robbins)-1932 A.D
a. classical or wealth definition (Adam Smith)-1776 A.D:
The famous classical economist Adam smith for the firs time defined economics as “science of wealth”. The definition was given in the book “an enquiry to the nature and the causes of wealth of nations” published in 1776 A.D. the book is popularly known as “wealth of nations”. According to smith, labor is the main source of income or wealth. More wealth is accumulated only if more labor is used. Economics explains the human behavior and activities they do for wealth. This definition was based upon the assumptions of full employment, perfect competition, no governmental interventions, money just as a medium of exchange and so on.
                                                                                                                             This definition has following main proposition:-
i. economics is science of wealth
ii. labor is the only source of income
iii. there is perfect competition in product as well as labor market
iv. the government should not interfere the activities of people and business organizations
v. this definition is influenced by physiocracy and mercantilism.
            Wealth definition has over emphasized wealth. Economics is science of human activities rather than only wealth. Adam smith considers only material things or wealth as subject matter of economics but human beings require some immaterial things like self esteem or dignity, social prestige, national identity and so on too. The immaterial things are called essential things for human satisfaction. Wealth definition is based upon the theory of subsistence wage which is known as iron law of wage. The law was against the workers and in favor of employers. Adam smith doesn’t explain about scarcity
of resource and choice of best alternative for the use of resources. The problem of scarcity and choice is burning issue in the modern economics but he fails to explain about the problems of scarcity and choice. The wealth definition is based upon assumptions of full employment and perfect competition but none of these two is in existence. This definition is based upon the assumption of no intervention of government in economic activities of people and business organization but we find in every country more or less governmental intervention.
b. neo-classical or welfare definition (Alfred Marshall )-1890 A.D
                                 In 1890, Alfred Marshall, a famous neo-classical economist and a great contributor to micro economics defined economics as the science of material welfare. Here, the material welfare means the quantities of physical goods consumed by people. if the people are consuming large quantities of goods, they are said to have high level of welfare into two types
1.       material welfare
2.       immaterial welfare
 According to him, only the material welfare is the subject matter of economics. He assumes every person is rational and s/he uses the resources in his/her possession very properly so as to maximize their own welfare. Economics is therefore the science that studies the rational behavior revealed by the people. Major propositions of Marshall’s welfare definition are:-
1. Economics is science of material welfare
2. Economics is social science i.e. science of mankind
3. Economics is the study of rational behavior of people revealed for maximization of material welfare.
This definition of economics a science of material welfare was assumed correct until the arrival of Lionel Robbins. He criticized the definition under the following aspects:-
1. Classificatory activities of Marshall into material non material welfare, economics and non economic goods is only classificatory not analytical because single human cannot be material as well as non material according to the nature and purpose of work.
2. Non material activities like feeling of social service, human desire also satisfy human needs. This idea has not been prioritized
3. Non welfare consumption like harmful drugs, tobacco, and alcohol don’t promote social welfare but still are in the study of economics
4. Economics should study about total human beings but wealth definition doesn’t study about isolated people like saints, nuns, monks etc.
c. modern or scarcity and choice definition (Lionel Robbins)-1932 A.D
   According to Lionel Robbins, economics is the science of scarcity of the resources and the choice of best alternative for their utilization. The resources are limited in supply. Each resource is usable for different purposes. The wants or need of people are unlimited. The wants differ in importance. They differ from place to place, from time to time and from person to person. Some wants are more important whereas some are not. All wants cannot be fulfilled because of insufficiency of resources. Therefore, we have to go on utilizing the resources in such a way, so that, our more wants can be fulfilled leaving no one in most important wants unfulfilled. For it, we must select best ways for the utilization of the resources. We should have the complete information of resources available, needs of the country and their importance and ways for the utilization of resources. This definition is given in 1930 A.D after WWI. During third decade of the twentieth century, the European countries were badly in need of large quantities of resources for rehabilitation, construction of infrastructures, renovation etc. they were destructed in war. This definition is both normative and positive in nature. The major propositions are:-
1. there is unlimited human needs or wants
2. there is scarce means of resources
3. there are alternative use of resources
4. there is need of choice
         The definition is criticized in the following ways:-
1. economic problems arises not only due to scarcity but due to under, miss  or over utilization of resources
2. economic problems arises due to inequality too
3. there is political consideration
4. needs and resources may vary
Superiority of Robbins definition over Marshall’s definition:-
1. the definition is scientific
2. the definition is universally accepted
3. the definition has wide scope
4. the definition has science of choice

Scarcity and Choice(Basic economic problems/issues):

Scarcity, in general terms, means that the demand for something is much greater than the supply, or there is not enough money to buy it. The exact definition in economics is that there are insufficient resources to satisfy everyone’s needs and wants. Whether you’re talking about oil, from which we get the gasoline that powers most of our cars, or corn, even seats in a movie theater, there isn’t enough for everyone to get what they want at a zero price. You know something is scarce if you try to offer it for free, and you don’t have enough of it for everyone who stands in line to get it.

So, how does a society decide who gets what? Producers charge a price for it. That way, whoever values it the most will pay the most for it. This is how scarce resources are allocated, or divided up and distributed, efficiently in our economy. When you go to the store, you can’t buy everything you want, so you must make choices to buy one thing instead of another. If you walk into the store with $50 and the store offers you 500 different items, you’re only going to walk out of that store with a cart full of stuff that totals $50. Scarcity always leads to choice, and people can actually make better decisions because they have a better understanding of how much each choice costs.


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How Sane Are We ,Four Levels

How Sane Are We 

Four Levels of Interaction By Anuradha Chaudhary For: BBA,BBA-BI,BBA-TT,BCIS 

Literal Comprehension:

This essay is written by Anuradha Chaudhary and she focuses on the consciousness of environment and need of its conservation. As we are responsible for destroying nature its conservation is also our responsibility. We should not destroy anything in nature, they are not only for us; they are the gifts handed over to give or hand over our many generations. But there is vast destruction of nature in the world but less effort for saving and conserving nature. We think ecology and politics are closely linked although many people do not see any link between them. As elections are held to select our representatives, the representatives, whom we trust best, become ministers. So we easily think that they make only good decisions always for all but our representatives or ministers are wrong; they do just opposite; they think only their benefit, chair, party and vote. Many people think that political leaders are trustworthy so, who trust them cannot believe that they are irresponsible towards nature.

Chloroflurocarbons(CFC) are man-made chemicals. They cause 20% of the greenhouse effect. They cause to deplete the ozone layer which is like a shield around earth. This absorbs 99% of the sun’s ultraviolet rays. If the rays reach the earth, they will affect ecosystem, decrease agricultural productivity, weaken human immune system, cause skin cancer and eye cataracts. In 1920 CFCs were first made to use in refrigerators, spray cans, computer chips, air-conditioners etc. In 1974, the world’s scientists disclosed the fact that there is link between CFCs and the ozone layer, but nations and CFCs producers turned deaf ears towards the warning. Only in 1985, it was believed that there is a link between CFCs and the ozone layer. Then the world’s nations signed a document to stop CFCs productivity by 2006.

The decision of phasing out CFCs globally is a rational decision but the writer does not think they are honest to the decision. They could stop the use of CFCs immediately and use cheaper and harmless chemicals to substitute CFCs. But their decisions lack implementation. By allowing people to use CFCs for some more times, we are causing destruction to ourselves. Here the writer relates the science fiction “War with the Newts” by Karel Capek. Where the newts are exceptionally clever water animals which could give men pearls. Men gave them knives to keep themselves safe from sharks. Their number increased so largely that they even went to the country to live and endangered the existence of human beings. Like the newts we are destroying our own dwelling and worsening our environment and air.


We human being is considered the supreme creature of all the other many creatures in the world; we think ourselves wise, witty, clever, intelligent, enthusiastic and responsible creature. But, we are so sane that we destroy our own home and ourselves not only other creatures. We think only inheritance of the natural things here and do whatever thing we like. The essay also implies that human cannot make rational decisions. Neither general people choose rational political leaders as their representatives nor do the elected representatives make right decisions in time. Moreover, they are not honest too. They are only worrying about the next election but not about the future of people and other creatures. They know that CFCs are depleting ozone layer but are not doing anything to stop the use of this harmful chemical. They make decisions but have no courage and take no initiation of implementation. Thus, we are spoiling environment by electing such leaders and they are spoiling the future of mankind.

Critical thinking:

This essay is mainly focused on environmental degradation and importance of its conservation. In this essay the writer criticizes the governments, politicians and factory owners who use harmful chemicals like chloroflurocarbons. She gives emphasis on its conservation because we are responsible for its destruction. She criticizes sharply to the leaders and the people who elect such leaders but she does not think the scientists should also be equally careful about the harmful effects of the chemical. Not only leaders and scientists all we are equally responsible for this problem and should be careful for its solution.


Reading literary tests is very beneficial. Literature gives not only pleasure or entertainment but a vast knowledge about different fields. As I read this essay, I got a lot of information from this essay. I knew about the ozone layer and its usefulness. I also knew the bad sides of air conditioners and refrigerators. Before this I was careless of these things; I would not feel anything while using AC and fridge, but now I feel I am guilty of polluted nature when I use these appliances. I have seen many people suffering from skin cancer, respiratory problems and other many diseases. This might have been caused by the ultra violet rays of the sun and the depleted ozone layer. Now I will try to convince all my relatives and families about these problems.

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  1. Internet,Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet,Services Provided by internet


    Internet is a global computer network providing a variety of information and communication facilities, consisting of interconnected networks using standardized communication protocols.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Internet:

Advantages:  1) Information on almost every subject imaginable. 2) Powerful search engines 3) Ability to do research from your home versus research libraries. 4) Information at various levels of study. Everything from scholarly articles to ones directed at children. 5) Message boards where people can discuss ideas on any topic. Ability to get wide range of opinions. People can find others that have a similar interest in whatever they are interested in. 6) The internet provides the ability of emails. Free mail service to anyone in the country. 7) Platform for products like SKYPE, which allow for holding a video conference with anyone in the world who also has access. 8) Friendships and love connections have been made over the internet by people involved in love/passion over similar interests. 9) Things such as Yahoo Answers and other sites where kids can have readily available help for homework. 10) News, of all kinds is available almost instantaneously. Commentary, on that news, from every conceivable viewpoint is also available. Disadvantages:  1) There is a lot of wrong information on the internet. Anyone can post anything, and much of it is garbage. 2) There are predators that hang out on the internet waiting to get unsuspecting people in dangerous situations. 3) Some people are getting addicted to the internet and thus causing problems with their interactions of friends and loved ones. 4) Pornography that can get in the hands of young children too easily. 5) Easy to waste a lot of time on the internet. You can start surfing, and then realize far more time has passed than you realized. Internet and television together of added to the more sedentary lifestyles of people which further exacerbates the obesity problem. 6) Internet has a lot of “cheater” sites. People can buy essays and pass them off as their own far more easily than they used to be able to do. 7) There are a lot of unscrupulous businesses that have sprung up on the internet to take advantage of people. 8) Hackers can create viruses that can get into your personal computer and ruin valuable data. 9) Hackers can use the internet for identity theft. 10) It can be quite depressing to be on the internet and realize just how uneducated so many people have become in today’s society.

A summary of advantages and disadvantages of using a internet:

Ten years ago, the Internet was practically unheard of by most people. Today, the Internet is one of the most powerful tools throughout the world. The Internet is a collection of various services and resources. The Internet’s main components are E-mail and the World Wide Web. Actually, there’s a lot more to the Internet than E-mail, search engines, celebrity web sites, up-to-the-second sports scores, and chat rooms full of discussions. The Net also ranks as one of today’s best business tools. Almost all households contain the Internet; however, before people connect to the Internet, they need to be aware of its disadvantages and advantages.

     Many people fear the Internet because of its disadvantages. They claim to not use the Internet because they are afraid of the possible consequences or are simply not interested. People who have yet connected to the Internet claim they are not missing anything. Today’s technological society must realize that it is up to them to protect themselves on the Internet.

     Children using the Internet have become a big concern. Most parents do not realize the dangers involved when their children connect to the Internet. When children are online, they can easily be lured into something dangerous. For example, children may receive pornography online by mistake; therefore, causing concern among parents everywhere. Whether surfing the Web, reading newsgroups, or using email, children can be exposed to extremely inappropriate material. To keep children safe, parents and teachers must be aware of the dangers. They must actively guide and guard their children online. There are a number of tools available today that may help keep the Internet environment safer for children.

     Musicians are also concerned with disadvantages to the Net such as, accessibility and freedom. They are upset because the Internet provides their music online at no charge to consumers. File-sharing services, such as Napster, provide copyrighted songs to all Internet users. The main concern is the music is free! Musicians feel they are not getting paid for their work. Because of Napster, it is almost impossible to close down all file-sharing services because there are too many of them to count.

     Another major disadvantage of the Internet is privacy. Electronic messages sent over the Internet can be easily tracked, revealing who is talking to whom and what they are talking about. As people surf the Internet, they are constantly giving information to web sites. People should become aware that the collection, selling, or sharing of the information they provide online increases the chances that their information will fall into the wrong hands. When giving personal information on the Internet, people should make sure the Web site is protected with a recognizable security symbol. On the other hand, this does not mean they are fully protected because anyone may obtain a user’s information. In other words, the most common Internet crimes are frauds.

     Today, not only humans getting viruses, but computers are also. Computers are mainly getting these viruses from the Internet, yet viruses may also be transferred through floppy disks. However, people should mainly be concerned about receiving viruses from the Internet. Some of these dangerous viruses destroy the computer’s entire hard drive, meaning that the user can no longer access the computer. Virus protection is highly recommended.

     Despite all of the terrible disadvantages of the Internet, there are numerous advantages. In fact, the advantages weigh out the disadvantages. The most common thing the Internet is used for is research. Children and students are among the top people who use the Internet for research. Nowadays, it is almost required that students use the Internet for research. The Internet has become one of the biggest sources for research. Almost everyday, research on medical issues becomes easier to locate. Web sites have become available for people to research diseases and talk to doctors online at sites such as, America’s Doctor.

Entertainment is another popular reason why many people surf the Internet. Downloading games, going into chat rooms or just surfing the Web are some of the uses people have discovered. There are numerous games that may be downloaded from the Internet at no charge. Chat rooms are popular because users can meet new and interesting people. In fact, the Internet has been used by people to find life long partners. When people surf the Web, there are numerous things that can be found. Music, hobbies, news and more can be found on the Internet.

     Another popular thing to do on the Internet is to check out the news. Almost all local news can be obtained through the Internet. Up to date sports scores are probably the most popular looked at news. Sports scores are updated on the Internet as soon as the game ends. Weather is also a popular source to look up on the Internet. Using the Internet to get the weather allows people to view weather all over the world. Live radar all over the country and local forecasts are just to name a few of the things that may be obtained for weather information on the Internet.

     Shopping online has also become a huge success and is considered a great advantage of the Internet. No matter what people are shopping for, it can be found on the Internet. People do not even have to leave their homes. A few companies have collected millions of dollars using the Internet for selling. Clothing is probably one of the most bought items online. Almost every major clothing store has its on Web site. In fact, In US, people can even go grocery shopping online using such sites as Just one click of the mouse on the items they want to purchase and the items are delivered to their front door. Unfortunately, this kind of service is not yet available in Malaysia for the time being. Groceries and clothing are only a few of the items that may be bought on the Internet.

     In conclusion, today’s society is in the middle of a technological boom. People can either choose to take advantage of this era, or simply let it pass them by. The Internet is a very powerful tool. It has many advantages; however, people need to be extremely aware of the disadvantages as well.

Services Provided By internet:

Internet service providers (ISP – Internet Service Provider) companies or institutions (such as T-Com, Iskon or CARNet in Croatia, AT&T in US and MTNL in India), which satellite or optical connections with several major Internet node abroad (mainly in the direction of America and Europe) and the thus ensuring high capacity connection to the rest of the Internet world. However, practice has shown that it can barely follow the needs of the growing number of members of Internet communities. When selecting an ISP of significance is the number of services that it provides to its customers. All services provided by e-mail, but do not provide any service to FTP, newsgroups, renting space on the disc, certain program support and etc. CARNet allows for almost all university departments.

The Following are the most common service provided by internet.

1)Electronic Mail:

Electronic mail is one of the most popular and basic network services. It’s relatively low risk, but that doesn’t mean it’s risk free. Forging electronic mail is trivial (just as is forging regular postal mail), and forgeries facilitate two different types of attacks: attacks against your reputation and social manipulation attacks (e.g., attacks in which users are sent mail purporting to come from an administrator and advising them to change to a specific password). Accepting electronic mail ties up computer time and disk space, opening you up for denial of service attacks, although with proper configuration, only email service will be denied. Particularly with modern multimedia mail systems, people can send electronic mail containing programs that run with insufficient supervision and may turn out to be Trojan horses .

Although people worry most about the last risk mentioned above, in practice the most common problems with electronic mail are inadvertent floods (including chain letters) and people who put entirely inappropriate confidence in the confidentiality of electronic mail and send proprietary data via electronic mail across the Internet. However, as long as users are educated, and the mail service is isolated from other services so that inadvertent or purposeful denial of service attacks shut down as little as possible, electronic mail is reasonably safe.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol ( SMTP ) is the Internet standard protocol for sending and receiving electronic mail. SMTP itself is not usually a security problem, but SMTP servers can be. A program that delivers mail to users often needs to be able to run as any user that might receive mail. This gives it broad power and makes it a tempting target for attackers.

The most common SMTP server on UNIX is Sendmail. Sendmail has been exploited in a number of break-ins, including the Internet worm, which makes people nervous about using it. Many of the available replacements, however, are not clearly preferable to Sendmail; the evidence suggests they are less exploited because they are less popular, not because they are less vulnerable. There are exceptions in programs designed explicitly for security, but these don’t support all the functions necessary to send and receive arbitrary mail messages; some things are still best handled by Sendmail running in a secured space.

2)FTP (File Transfer Protocol):

Before the World Wide Web and FTP was the only way to transfer large files between computers of Internet users. Allows access to a computer on the Internet (if it’s public or available to the password), preview content on its hard disk, finding the necessary files and copy on its own disk. This Internet service is not as simple as the World Wide Web, but it is very useful.

Using program support for FTP will set about establishing communication address is similar as in the previous examples:

 ''              or
 ''         or

File transfer function is increasingly taking the WWW, so that with a confirmation copy selected files as needed and the auxiliary program with WWW browser (GetRight or similar) which will take over the task of FTP transmission and after stop using the browser.

3)IRC (Internet Relay Chat):

This service allows the Internet to one or more of Internet users who are hooked to the same channel at the same time see the text that you type on your computer, and the texts of other active users typing on his computer. Channels to ‘talk’ to exist for almost all areas of interest. This system is much faster than e-mail because it is conducted almost simultaneously send and read messages, but it is much more expensive than e-mail, because it requires a long term connection with the Internet, but only for those who pay for this service out of his own pocket.


Internet service that allows the user logs on and runs on a remote computer and use programs installed on the remote computer. Of course, the remote computer must be enabled in the user access rights to the computer. For security reasons this service on many servers is not allowed. It is better to say that the Telnet ‘Terminal Emulation’ software support, which to communicate with a computer connected via a TCP / IP stack. Thus, the emulator work former unit called ‘Terminal’ (from the mainframe era). This same role today better performed by programs that use SSH (Secure Shell) connections over TCP / IP as the carrier of connection, but all traffic is encrypted. Although this mechanism provides plenty of security in the work with the server, system administrators are reluctant to make this service available to all users.

5)Voice / Video Communication – Skype:

Internet networking service that allows users to voice / video communication. This implies that the devices that use this service have built-in camera and microphone. Although this service is usually used for that purpose, in addition to communicate written messages, internet calls, sharing information and much more. Can be used as a common telephone communications. This service is based on the free program support allows free calls to anyone who has installed a ‘Skype’ program support on his computer, anywhere in the world. Thanks to the high speed internet communication has increasingly better quality. Can be achieved over a fixed PTT communication lines or cell phones or send text messages at very reasonable prices, without any special setup or subscriptions.

It should be emphasized that this is no communication between user devices (phones), but between two user accounts registered on ‘Skype’ service which includes registration, enter the user_name and password protected some basic personal information. The user can later modify the information in their profiles as needed. ‘Skype’ has just developed that allows retrieval of user account and select the desired action and can be installed on a PC with Windows, Mac or Linux operating system, several kinds of mobile phones, and what is best to communicate between multiple users in a commercial version it’s the conference using the ‘Skype Manager’ program support to be purchased. Provides for the use of TV sets in communication. So, a kind of free video phone, which offers even extra specific services. With this program support the new generation of smartphones and tablets, using the resources of the existing SOHO infrastructure, ‘calling’ becomes really cheap. This service should not be confused with VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) technology that allows the transmission of voice communications over Internet networks for the purpose of protocol design, that ‘Skype’ is used in the sense of some kind of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) communication.

Something similar is service ‘Viber‘ that allows free calls, SMS and MMS share content with anyone, anywhere, but there is no ability to transfer video as ‘Skype’. Similar to the above mentioned is service ‘WhatsApp‘, multiple platform mobile application to send messages in real time.

6)Social networks:

Social networks are a newer phenomenon and do not belong in a separate category because they contain almost all of the previously mentioned services, unified to work in an easy, friendly way. Not only does it allow communication among users but also represent a form of socializing. There are already quite developed FORUMS, bulletin boards web version, which uses a technology exchange text via the web site, or web sites. It is a debate on a topic initiated by a member of the forum. As a rule, seek enrollment, mostly for free, using the application type USER_NAME  / PASSWORD, typically associated with a user’s address in the e-mail regarding the identification. To service the forum is not abused in any way and to respect the rules of acceptable behavior take care administrators – moderators appointed by the forum owner of the forum members themselves who usually takes this obligation voluntarily reported. These individuals may be excluded from membership and delete and delete malicious content, basically supervise. Depending on the number of members, topic, traffic, and the owner of the forum depends with how the server program to use the forums.

Purpose of writing by arbitrarily selected topics has a BLOG (contraction of the term ‘web log’), a type of website that is usually maintained by an individual, is organized much like a personal diary with respect to input regarding the content of the description of an event or topic, with the possibility of enriching the content and graphics video. As a kind of diary of events, entered contests are usually displayed in reverse chronological order. Usually allows readers can add here your comments on the topic that is currently being processed..

One of the most popular is FACEBOOK, a social network where users can set up their image, disclose your personal information, describe their interests, publish their written and photographic pieces, develop some thematic discussions, etc. with the possibility that any of the members receive in ‘his ‘group or a member of it off. A sort of meeting place, so it is possible even to initiate effective political, protest, humanitarian or some other action. Has a similar purpose, and TWITTER, social networks and mikrobloging service, which uses instant messaging, SMS or web content. There are also ‘LinkedIn‘, ‘Myspace‘, ‘Tumblr‘, ‘Instagram‘ and the other, each with its own characteristics. What made them especially adorned with a tremendously rapid dissemination of information, and misinformation. Thus, the negative effects are possible.

Very specific Internet service YOUTUBE. Used to exchange video content where users can upload, view and evaluate video, up to ‘Full HD’ resolution, respecting copyrights. It is forbidden to support pornography, violence, crime, embarrassment and defamation, and advertising. For your own protection YouTube reserves the right to use, modify and delete content posted. In summary, one can find all sorts of things, from useful to useless content, but also very funny and naughty and critical to everyday events. Whether it is a film and music videos covering YouTube to be a free medium for promoting a filmmaker, musician or politician and there have been cases where people have gained popularity in this way, and then accepted by traditional media such as newspapers, radio and television.

Essentially all of these are web applications that typically require enrollment to confirm the response to the e-mail messages to prospective members. Registration is usually type USER_NAME / PASSWORD or E-MAIL / PASSWORD, and the user alone chooses who will be his personal data are visible in your profile settings. But for one such network services server is usually insufficient. Caring for their functioning in particular computers-servers; datacenter. The forerunner of the above was certainly B.B.S. era of modem communications.

7)Search Engines:

Already these social networks to enable retrieval of content that is stored and monitored, but a special group of interconnected computer servers in a DATACRNTER and interconnected datacenters in a unique system. The basic idea is that all registered facilities are located on one or more servers can be found in some sort of elaborate directory by interest groups (sports, music, movies …). For this purpose, the contents should be reported to the owner who approves the inclusion of datacenter facilities and reported its index. Advanced way of this is that all of the reported content indexes and their keywords are ranked according to their relevance. Through a simple form to enter the desired search term on the basis of which offers all of the titles that describe the content of the list according to the achieved ranking. So, basically it is a huge database that is constantly updated.

Almost every state has its own internal search engine, but the most interesting are those international type as YAHOO!, GOOGLE and BING. Are listed in the order they occurred, although they appear to their versions that preceded them, today its possibilities are not even close. Course and apply them to the desired content complying with the prescribed rules. Basically all are oriented to search HTML text or the images, though some of their skills are recognized and other formats of documents and index them. Currently qualified as a browser web content considered GOOGLE. In addition to enabling the global search and local search free within declared site. Algorithm correspondence of new titles, indexing and ranking their content daily in construction, a mechanism for storing data and their storage is not reduced more on copying disks themselves but to each other constantly copying content themselves datacenter which has quite a few in the world, about forty. Seen from the perspective described something of very great importance should be kept by them.

8)Web-Hosting (DATACENTER):

No long that it is the development of technology, high-speed computers and Internet connections, provided that the user can purchase a server in a datacenter, who cares about the correctness of the service provider, and in which the user via FTP Service set up your web content (web hosting). Of course the service is paid, but in the age of virtualization computing platforms becoming cheaper and more accessible with very reasonable prices. What set the servers and as a server lease depends on the users. This requires the lease currently available domain names and headquarters facilities in which servers become recognizable. ‘IT Alphabet’ uses just one of them and has been reported in the previously mentioned search engines. The basic difference with the search engines is that in these datacenter care about the content (data) leads users, the concern for the safety of equipment and access to available web content leading provider of these services. Impressive is the concept of ‘Google container data center‘ that uses Google.

Electronic versions of NEWSPAPERS and PERIODICALS is also one of the most important services. Main service is not fully available, in addition to the subscription, which is often not expensive and allows access to archived editions. Similar is with the offer of books and multimedia content. In addition to this specialized sites (PORTAL) offers a variety of facilities, from the amendments set out TV content, educational facilities, entertainment facilities to the ××× content. The variety is so great that it is very difficult to share content in a few categories. The above is fundamentally changing habits of users, especially the growing popularity of tablets, which are becoming, for example, an free integral part of restaurants offering. With the morning coffee not to use a paper version of the newspaper rather than a tablet. From the above it is clear why the quality of the program for viewing Internet content (browser) is given more prominence.

What has set up ‘Google’ with its ‘Android’ platform, and skillfully used ‘Facebook’ and others, and is the basis of working at recent ‘Windows’ operating systems – data storage in one location (OneDrive storage), more correctly data centers that are continuously interconnected copy and synchronize data and presented to the user as a single group – CLOUD, somewhere on the Internet, a trend that is increasingly spreading to enable the user to use their data anywhere and anytime, even with different platforms (PC, Tablet , Mobile …). To preserve the privacy of the user traffic to the cloud must be encrypted, so if security required and the data itself is encrypted. On this principle, essentially functioning banks and public institutions that offer customers a variety of services; bill payment, payment processing, issuing various documents and the like.

As usual, the service should be paid, under the principle of ‘How much money – so much music.’, But the services that are beneficial to the general welfare generally are not charged.






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Latest news of loksewa about filling positions 2072/2073

Latest news of loksewa about filling positions 2072/2073

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Organizational Change

Organizational Change, Forces of Organizational change,Planned change, process of planned change

Organizational change:

Change is one of the most challenging events an organization will go through. This lesson describes the steps of the planned changed process, which include recognizing the need for change, developing change goals, appointing a change agent, assessing the current climate, developing and implementing a change plan and evaluating the plan’s success.

Organizational Change refers to relatively enduring alteration of the present state of an organization or its components or interrelation amongst the components and their differential and integrated functions in totality in order to attain greater viability in line context of the present and anticipated future environment.

Forces of Organizational Change:

External factors:

  1. Technology: –The adoption of new technologies, such as computers, telecommunication systems, robotics and flexible. Manufacturing operations have a profound impact on organizations that adopt them.
  2. Social changes: After globalization there is a radical change shift In one value placed on higher education, lifestyle, views on marriage, joint family system and shopping preferences.
  3. 3. Marketing conditions: The need, wants, appreciations, liking, disliking and preferences of customers are changing frequently. Consumer is emerging as a ‘king’ who is actually deciding factor of market forces.
  4. Globalization:-  Global economy refers that competitors likely to come from different countries. Organizations will encounter a wide variety of dynamic changes – merger, acquisition, down rising etc.
  5. Political forces:- As long as currencies fluctuate and some economies outperform other, assets will flow across borders.



Internal forces:-

  1. 1. Changes is managerial personnel:- Changes in the functioning of top level professional manager bring changes in one organization in terms of organization design, delegation of authority, allocation of work, firing responsibility and installation of supervision and contact etc.
  2. Shift in social cultural values:  Workers are more educated, less conservative and more women are joining the work force. They place greater emphasis on human values, such as dignity recognition, social status, equality etc.
  3. To have a dynamic environment: If one organization is not moving forward, then it will not survive and grow. Flexibility, specialization, standardization, modernization and automation are the necessities of the time. Required changes should be incorporated so that employees modify their attitude towards changes.
  4. Deficiency in the existing structures: Changes may be required in the present setup of the organization to meet the challenges imposed by the workforces and technology. These deficiencies may be in the form of more no of levels, lack of cooperation and coordination, poor system of committee, lack of uniform policy decisions, multiplicity of committee autocracy in decision making, centralization and so on.


Planned Change:

Planned Change is constituted with intentional and goal oriented change in activities to adapt with changing environment of business. According to Thomas and Bennis, “planned change is one deliberate design and implements of a structural innovation, anew policy or goal, or a change in operating philosophy, climate, or style.” Planned change attempts at all aspects of one organization which are closely interrelated; technology, task, people, structure.

Process of Planned Change:

Change is often one of the most challenging events an organization will go through. At times it may seem like trying to climb the Himalayan  mountains barefoot! From the moment a change becomes necessary through its implementation, a great deal of factors come into play. To maximize the success of any organizational change, managers need to create and follow a logical sequence of steps to ensure the objectives of the change are accomplished. The planned change process is typically made up of the following steps:

  • Recognize the need for change
  • Develop change goals
  • Appoint a change agent
  • Assess the current climate
  • Develop a change plan method for implementation
  • Implement the plan
  • Evaluate the success of the plan at reaching the change goals

1) Recognize the Need to Change & Determine Goals: In today’s business environment there are many factors that force an organization to change. These factors can be internal to the organization (such as employees, culture, policy or procedures) or external (such as customers, competitors, the economy or politics). Managers at all levels (top, middle and low level) must be aware of these internal and external forces that potentially compromise the success of the organization and promptly respond by changing some aspect of the organization. Recognizing the need for change is pivotal to the long-term sustainability of an organization.

2) Establishing a Sense of Urgency :

Once a manager recognizes that a change should happen in the organization, he or she must be certain to understand why the change is needed. Developing change goals provides managers with the objective or expectation of how a change will respond to whatever internal or external forces are driving the need to change. For example, when Redbox made its explosive entrance into the marketplace with its movie kiosk service, Blockbuster was forced to duplicate this offering in order to stay in business. Redbox essentially created a service that literally stole the customer base from many traditional movie stores by offering the same product at a fraction of the price and at a convenient location. This required traditional movie stores like Blockbuster to recognize they needed to change what they offered as well to meet their goal of staying in business.

3) Appointing a Change Agent:

Once a manager recognizes that a change must happen in the organization and develops the change goals, he or she needs to select somebody to carry out that change. The change agent is someone who serves as a leader during change development and implementation. They are typically forward-thinking individuals who are highly charismatic, good with people and capable of inspiring the workforce to accept the change and even aid in the implementation. It is important to note that while change agents are leaders, not all leaders are change agents. In fact, many organizations will hire someone outside of the company to serve as a change agent due to their expertise and unique abilities to drive change.

4) Assess the Current Climate:

One thing that change agents are particularly good at is assessing the current climate of the organization to determine how ready the organization and its members are for the change. Some organizations are better equipped to handle change, while others take a lot more work. The change agent will spend time gathering information relating to the organizational culture, available resources, employee attitudes, possible training needs and leadership. This data is then used by the change agent to prepare people for change by offering information relating to why the change is needed, what the desired future state will be, how it is better than the current state of the organization and how the change will affect the members of the organization.

5) Developing, Implementing & Evaluating the Change:

Now that the organization has been prepared for the change, a plan is needed. Developing the change plan provides the roadmap for how the change will be implemented in such a way that the organization is able to achieve the change goals. Questions relating to who, when, where and how should all be answered in the change plan. Responsibilities are delegated, specific events and milestones are identified and the action plan is set to provide the methods and procedures that must be completed to implement the change. After the plan is written, it needs to be communicated and implemented.

Implementing the change puts the change plan into action. This is a critical time for the change agent, as he or she must maintain momentum and monitor the progress of implementation. The change agent will also pay attention to the distribution of resources, knowledge and level of employee support to ensure that barriers to successful implementation are removed. New behaviors relating to the change should also be reinforced by the change agent as a part of the implementation process.


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Leadership,  Characteristics,  functions,  Traits/Qualities of Good Leaderdhip,  Styles of Leadership, Approaches to leadership(Trait Approaches to leadership,Behavioral Approaches to leadership, The Ohio State Studies, The Managerial Grid, Situational Approaches to leadership ,Fiedler Model.


Leadership is the ability to influence the behavior and performance of an individual or group of individuals towards the achievement of common objectives.It is a psychological process of influencing subordinates and providing guidance to them.

Characteristics of Leadership:

  1. Empathy: Creating a legitimate rapport with your staff makes it less likely that personal issues and resentment can creep in and derail the group. When your team knows that you are empathetic to their concerns, they will be more likely to work with you and share in your vision, rather than foster negative feelings.
  2. Consistency: Being a consistent leader will gain you respect and credibility, which is essential to getting buy-in from the group. By setting an example of fairness and credibility, the team will want to act the same way.
  3. Honesty: Another characteristic of leadership that lends itself to credibility. Those who are honest, especially about concerns, make it far more likely that obstacles will be addressed rather than avoided. Honesty also allows for better assessment and growth.
  4. Direction: Having the vision to break out of the norm and aim for great things -then the wherewithal to set the steps necessary to get there– is an essential characteristic of good leadership. By seeing what can be and managing the goals on how to get there, a good leader can create impressive change.
  5. Communication: Effective communication helps keep he team working on the right projects with the right attitude. If you communicate effectively about expectations, issues and advice, your staff will be more likely to react and meet your goals.
  6. Flexibility: Not every problem demands the same solution. By being flexible to new ideas and open-minded enough to consider them, you increase the likelihood that you will find the best possible answer. You will set a good example for your team and reward good ideas.
  7. Conviction: A strong vision and the willingness to see it through is one of the most important characterizes of leadership. The leader who believes in the mission and works toward it will be an inspiration and a resource to their followers.
  8. Inspiration: Quite often, employees need someone to look up to for direction, guidance, and motivation. The entrepreneur needs to be that person. Hopefully, Human Resources has hired self-motivated individuals. Nevertheless, there are times, when many employees need the boss to inspire them by word or action. Employees need someone to look up to, admire, and follow. Even when the production or delivery of services looks like “it is all going well,” the leader may at times need to step in personally to offer a suggestion or encouragement to ensure that employees perform their jobs in an optimal manner.
  9. Ambition: Resting on your laurels is bad for employee morale and entrepreneurial credibility. Employees need to be constantly striving for improvement and success; and they need to see the same and more in their leaders. When the boss is seen as someone who works to attain increasingly higher goals, employees will be impressed and more willing to mirror that behavior. It’s a win-win for everyone.
  10. Interpersonal skills: Successful entrepreneurs are comfortable relating to other people; they easily create rapport and are at least more extroverted than they are introverted. These factors help leaders seem approachable, likeable, and comfortable in their position. Those qualities contribute to staff wanting to interact with their leader. They also help motivate employees to do a better job. When workers can relate to their boss, they believe that their boss is more concerned about them, with their performance, and with their output. Furthermore, they believe that they can go to their boss with problems they encounter on the job without fearing consequences for not knowing how to resolve issues.Not all entrepreneurs are adept at interpersonal skills. Those that aren’t, might find it helpful to take a course, choose a mentor or locate a therapist to help them build interpersonal skills. The intangible cost is too high to not improve these abilities. In addition, here’s where a strong team comes into play. The less experienced leader who is still learning these skills can rely on the team to get out and to “press the flesh,” interact with employees, and spread a positive attitude to help develop morale.
  11. A “can do, get it done” attitude: Nothing builds a picture of success more than achievement, and achievement is the number one factor that motivates just about everyone across all cultures. When employees see that their boss can lead and direct, has a clear vision and attainable goals, and actually gains results in a timely manner, then that person’s credibility increases throughout the organization. Entrepreneurs must modestly demonstrate their skills to give their constituents valid reasons to appreciate and value their efforts.

Functions of Leadership:

  1.  To act as a representative of the work-group: Leader is the link between the top management and the work group. He has to communicate the problems and difficulties of the work group to the management and the expectation of the management to the work group. He act as a link between the top management and the work group.
  2.  To develop team spirit: One of the core function of the Leader manager is that to create a team spirit in between the members of the group. They should act as a team rather than performing as individuals. It is his responsibility to create a pleasant atmosphere keeping in view the subordinates needs, potential abilities and competence.
  3.  To act as a counselor of the people at work: When the subordinates face problems at work, which may be technical or emotional, the leader has to guide and advise the subordinate concerned. There may be situation which are out of control, in that situation, leader must stand behind the subordinate to encourage and support and find a solution for the problem.
  4. Proper use of Power: Leader must be careful while exercising his power or authority in relation to his subordinates. According to the situation he may exercise different types of powers like reward power, corrective power, coercive power, expert power, formal or informal power etc., for the positive response from his subordinate. Make sure that while using the power the response from his subordinate should not yield a negative response to the group work. Leader must analyze the situation before exercising his power.
  5. Time Management: Leader must ensure the timely completion of the work while ensuring the quality and efficiency of the work. At different stages, the work should be complete according to the plan. The timely completion of the individual tasks will ensure the completion of the group work. Leader should monitor and ensure the individual task at different stages are accomplished as per the plan.
  6. Secure effectiveness of group-effort: To get the maximum contribution towards the achievement of objectives the leader must delegate authority, ensure the availability of the adequate resources, provide for a reward system to improve the efficiency of capable workmen, invite participation of employees in decision making and communicate necessary information to the employees.

Styles of Leadership:

The total pattern of leaders’ actions as perceived by their employees is called leadership style. It represents the leaders’ philosophy, skills and attitudes in practice.

It is necessary to study the different leadership styles from which an appropriate style can be selected, depending upon the situation in which leadership is to be exercised and the nature of the followers involved.

1. Autocratic or Authoritarian leadership: An autocratic leader centralizes power and decision-making in himself. He gives orders, assigns tasks and duties without consulting the employees. The leader takes full authority and assumes full responsibility.Autocratic leadership is negative, based on threats and punishment. Subordinates act as he directs. He neither cares for their opinions nor permits them to influence the decision. He believes that because of his authority he alone can decide what is best in a given situation.Autocratic leadership is based upon close supervision, clear-cut direction and commanding order of the superior. It facilitates quick decisions, prompt action and unity of direction. It depends on a lesser degree of delegation. But too much use of authority might result in strikes and industrial disputes. It is likely to produce frustration and retard the growth of the capacity of employees.The employees work as hard as is necessary to avoid punishment. They will thus produce the minimum which will escape punishment.

This leadership style is less likely to be effective because (i) the new generation is more independent and less submissive and not amenable to rigid control; (ii) people look for ego satisfactions from their jobs and (iii) revolution of rising expectations changed the attitude of the people.

Autocratic leadership may be divided into three classes:

  •  The hard-boiled autocrat who relies mainly on negative influences uses the force of fear and punishment in directing his subordinates towards the organisational goals. This is likely to result in employees becoming resentful.
  • The benevolent autocrat who relies mainly on positive influences uses the reward and incentives in directing his subordinates towards the organisational goals. By using praise and pats on the back he secures the loyalty of subordinates who accept his decisions.
  • The manipulative autocrat who makes the employees feels that they are participating in decision-making though the manager himself has taken the decision. McGregor labels this style as Theory X.

2. Democratic or Participative leadership: Participative or democratic leaders decentralise authority. It is characterised by consultation with the subordinates and their participation in the formulation of plans and policies. He encourages participation in decision-making.He leads the subordinates mainly through persuasion and example rather than fear and force. Sometimes the leader serves as a moderator of the ideas and suggestions from his group. McGregor labels this style as Theory Y.Taylor’s scientific management was based on the inability of the ordinary employees to make effective decisions about their work. Hence the decision-making power was vested with the management. But recent studies indicate the need for participation by subordinates. The modern trend favours sharing the responsibility with the employees.This will foster enthusiasm in them. The employees feel that management is interested in them as well as in their ideas and suggestions. They will, therefore, place their suggestions for improvement.

Advantages for democratic leadership are as follows: (i) higher motivation and improved morale; (ii) increased co-operation with the management; (iii) improved job performance; (iv) reduction of grievances and (v) reduction of absenteeism and employee turnover.

3. The Laissez-faire or Free-rein leadership: Free-rein leaders avoid power and responsibility. The laissez-faire or non-interfering type of leader passes on the responsibility for decision-making to his subordinates and takes a minimum of initiative in administration. He gives no direction and allows the group to establish its own goals and work out its own problems.The leader plays only a minor role. His idea is that each member of the group when left to himself will put forth his best effort and the maximum results can be achieved in this way. The leader acts as an umpire. But as no direction or control is exercised over the people, the organisation is likely to flounder.

An experiment conducted among Boy Scout Clubs of the USA in 1940 shows autocratic leadership is likely to rouse antagonism in the group and produce hostility towards the leader. In democratic groups, the absence of the leader made little difference, while in autocratic groups productive work dropped to a minimum, when the leader was out of the room.

Democratic leadership is more likely to win the loyalty of the group. The laissez-faire groups also developed friendly approaches to the leader as in the democratic group. But suggestions from the groups were very low and they were also less productive.

4. Paternalistic leadership: Under this management style the leader assumes that his function is fatherly or paternal. Paternalism means papa knows best. The relationship between the leader and his group is the same as the relationship between the head of the family and the members of the family. The leader guides and protects his subordinates as members of his family.As the head of the family he provides his subordinates with good working conditions and fringe benefits. It is assumed that workers will work harder out of gratitude. This leadership style was admirably successful in Japan with her peculiar social background.

This leadership style has still been widely prevalent in small firms in India. However, this paternalistic approach is unlikely to work with mature adult employees, many of whom do not like their interests to be looked after by a “godfather.” Instead of gratitude, it might generate antagonism and resentment in the subordinates.

Approaches to Leadership:

Leadership has been one of the  most studied topics in management. Several studies on leadership have over ther year helped to develop various approaches to leadership.Broadly there are three aproaches to leadership.

1)Trait approaches to Leadership:

This style of leadership gives more credence to the qualities a person is born with rather than what they develop or the relationships they develop with followers. Leadership trait theory is the idea that people are born with certain character traits.  This is the style that is attributed to a leader who others see as “a born leader”.  The innate qualities and characteristics possessed by strong leaders.  These traits, while not totally responsible for an individual’s success as a leader, are influential in the success of the leader.  This theory assumes that if you could identify people with the correct traits, you will be able to identify leaders.

The first major approach to leadership is commonly referred to as the trait approach to leadership because the approach looks for a series of physical, mental, or personality traits that effective leaders possess that neither non-leaders nor ineffective leaders possess. We start with this approach to leadership predominantly because it’s the oldest of the major approaches to leadership and is an approach to leadership that is still very much in existence today. The first major study to synthesize the trait literature was conducted by Ralph Stogdill in 1948.Stogdill, R. M. (1948). Personal factors associated with leadership: A survey of the literature. Journal of Psychology, 25, 35-71. In 1970, Stogdill reanalyzed the literature and found six basic categories of characteristics that were associated with leadership: physical, social background, intelligence and ability, personality, task-related, and social.

The focus of each of these five traits needs to be on what people see you do–not just the things they don’t see you do. Being honest isn’t a matter of not lying–it is taking the extra effort to display honesty.Intelligence, Being smart,  Someone who knows what they are talking about will instill confidence in the followers.  But, if a leaders intelligence is too high for the followers, and there is a disconnect, this can create a problem.  A leader must communicate effectively with one’s followers, and this intelligence difference is something to keep in mind.

  1. Intelligence:Developing intelligence is a lifestyle choice.  Having strong verbal ability, perceptual ability and reasoning appears to make on a better leader.  Most people want to follow someone they feel is “smart”, able to problem solve and have strong social skills.  While it is good to be bright, a leader’s intellectual ability should not be too much from that of his or her followers. This too, would depend on the situation.
  2. Self-confidence:The ability to be certain about one’s competencies and skills. This allows the leader to move ahead because they believe that what they are doing is correct.  They have the skills to be successful.
  3. Determination:The desire to get the job done.  Individuals with determination are willing to assert themselves, take initiative and be persistent. This could also be shown as dominance.
  4. Integrity: The quality of honesty and trustworthiness.  The leader with a high level of integrity will take responsibility for his or her actions.
  5. Sociability:  This refers to a leaders ability to seek out pleasant social relationships.  Leaders with a high degree of sociability are friendly, out going, courteous, tactful and diplomatic.

2)Behavioral Approaches to leadership:

In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors. They evaluated what successful leaders did, developed a taxonomy of actions, and identified broad patterns that indicated different leadership styles. Behavioral theory also incorporates B.F. Skinner’s theory of behavior modification, which takes into account the effect of reward and punishment on changing behavior. An example of this theory in action is a manager or leader who motivates desired behavior by scolding employees who arrive late to meetings and showing appreciation when they are early or on time.

                                                                   The behavioral approach to leadership consists of following three studies.

a)The Ohio State Studies:

The Ohio State Leadership Studies have contributed in general to the fields of management and organizational behavior, and specifically to the field of leadership. These contributions can be summarized in several categories. Process contributions include the use of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of leadership phenomena as well as a consistent emphasis on performing high-quality research. Conceptually, the Ohio State studies helped to shift the focus of the field from a universal trait approach to a more situational, behavioral-based view. Methodologically, the Ohio State studies contributed a model of programmatic construct validation and investigation, and provided future researchers with useful research instruments. In sum, these contributions are substantial and are worthy of continued recognition. In 1945, a group of researchers at Ohio State University sought to identify the observable behaviors of leaders instead of focusing of their individual traits. To document their findings, they generated a list of 150 statements designed to measure nine different dimensions of leadership behavior. These statements were used to develop the Leaders’ Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ). The surveys were then given to members of a group, who were asked to respond to a series of statements about the leader of their group. Respondents of the LBDQ-rated leaders cited how frequently they engaged in a certain behavior. The results of the survey showed that two main behaviors, consideration and initiating structure, were the most significant factors in leadership.

b)University of Michigan Studies:

Lead by the famous organizational psychologist, Dr. Rensis Likert, the leadership studies at the University of Michigan identified three characteristics of effective leadership; two of which were previously observed in studies that had been conducted at Ohio State University. The study showed that task and relationship-oriented behaviors weren’t of major significance within the world of organizational psychology. However it was the third observation that introduced a new concept, one of participative leadership. As a leading center of social science research, the University of Michigan has produced some of the most important studies of leadership. Studies dating back to the 1950s identified two broad leadership styles: an employee orientation and a production orientation. The studies also identified three critical characteristics of effective leaders: task-oriented behavior, relationship-oriented behavior, and participative leadership. The studies concluded that an employee orientation rather than a production orientation, coupled with general instead of close supervision, led to better results. The Michigan leadership studies, along with the Ohio State University studies that took place in the 1940s, are two of the best-known behavioral leadership studies and continue to be cited to this day.

c)The Managerial Grid:

Managerial Grid was originally developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton between 1958 and 1960 and first published in 1964 (Blake and Mouton 1964). The model was particularly influenced by Fleishman’s work on initiating structure and consideration (Blake, Mouton and Bidwell 1969; Blake and Mouton 1982b). Fleishman posited that there were two underlying dimensions of leadership behaviour which were called “consideration” and “initiating structure” (Fleishman 1957a, 1957b; Fleishman and Peters 1962). Consideration referred to behaviour reflecting respect for subordinates’ ideas and consideration of their feelings. Initiating structure referred to the extent to which a leader structured and defined his or her role and those of subordinates in order to achieve formal organisational goals. It was argued that high consideration was associated with high subordinate satisfaction, while high initiating structure was associated with high effectiveness but also high grievance levels and absenteeism. Further, it was claimed that when leaders rated high on both dimensions, high effectiveness and high satisfaction would occur without the grievance and absenteeism. Fleishman and Simmons (1970), in a representative quote, concluded “that the leadership pattern which combines high consideration and structure is likely to optimize a number of effectiveness criteria for a variety of supervisory jobs” (p. 171). This was subsequently referred to as the “high-high” leader paradigm and was the subject of research and the target for criticism during the 1970s (Larson , Hunt and Osborn 1976; Nystrom 1978).

3)Situational Approaches to Leadership:

Situational leadership is a theory of leadership that is part of a group of theories known as contingency theories of leadership. Generally speaking, contingency theories of leadership hold that a leader’s effectiveness is related to the leader’s traits or behaviors in relation to differing situational factors. According to situational leadership theory, a leader’s effectiveness is contingent on his ability to modify his management behavior to the level of his subordinates’ maturity or sophistication.

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