Monthly Archive April 2015

Programming Language

Programming Language

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A programming language is a formal constructed language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs to control the behavior of a machine or to express algorithms.

Types of Programming Languages

There are two types of programming languages, which can be categorized into the following ways:
 
1) Low level language
a) Machine language (1GL)
b) Assembly language (2GL)
 
2. High level language
a) Procedural-Oriented language (3GL)
b) Problem-Oriented language (4GL)
c) Natural language (5GL)
 
1. Low level language:
This language is the most understandable language used by computer to perform its operations. It can be further categorized into:
 
a) Machine Language (1GL):
Machine language consists of strings of binary numbers (i.e. 0s and 1s) and it is the only one language, the processor directly understands. Machine language has an Merits of very fast execution speed and efficient use of primary memory.
 
Merits:
  • It is directly understood by the processor so has faster execution time since the programs written in this language need not to be tanslated.
  • It doesn’t need larger memory.
Demerits:
  •  It is very difficult to program using 1GL since all the instructions are to be represented by 0s and 1s.
  •  Use of this language makes programming time consuming.
  •  It is difficult to find error and to debug.
  • ¨It can be used by experts only.
 
 
b) Assembly Language:
Assembly language is also known as low-level language because to design a program programmer requires detailed knowledge of hardware specification. This language uses mnemonics code (symbolic operation code like ‘ADD’ for addition) in place of 0s and 1s. The program is converted into machine code by assembler. The resulting program is reffered to as an object code.
 
Merits:
  • It is makes programming easier than 1GL since it uses mnemonics code for programming. Eg: ADD for addition, SUB for subtraction, DIV for division, etc.
  •  It makes programming process faster.
  •  Error can be identified much easily compared to 1GL.
  • ¨It is easier to debug than machine language.
 
Demerits:
  • Programs written in this language is not directly understandable by computer so translaters should be used.
  •  It is hardware dependent language so programmers are forced to think in terms of computer’s architecture rather than to the problem being solved.
  • Being machine dependent language, programs written in this language are very less or not protable.
  •  Programmers must know its mnemonics codes to perform any task.
 
 
2. High level language:
Instructions of this language closely resembles to human language or English like words. It uses mathematical notations to perform the task. The high level language is easier to learn. It requires less time to write and is easier to maintain the errors. The high level language is converted into machine language by one of the two different languages translator programs;interpreter or compiler.
 
 
High level language can be further categorized as:
 
a) Procedural-Oriented language (3GL):
Procedural Programming is a methodology for modeling the problem being solved, by determining the steps and the order of those steps that must be followed in order to reach a desired outcome or specific program state. These languages are designed to express the logic and the procedure of a problem to be solved. It includes languages such as Pascal, COBOL, C, FORTAN, etc.
 
 
Merits:
  • Because of their flexibility, procedural languages are able to solve a variety of problems.
  •  Programmer does not need to think in term of computer architecture which makes them focused on the problem.
  •  Programs written in this language are portable.
 
Demerits:
  •  It is easier but needs higher processor and larger memory.
  •  It needs to be translated therefore its execution time is more.
 
b) Problem-Oriented language (4GL):
It allows the users to specify what the output should be, without describing all the details of how the data should be manupulated to produce the result. This is one step ahead from 3GL. These are result oriented and include database query language.
Eg: Visual Basic, C#, PHP, etc.
 
The objectives of 4GL are to:
  • Increase the speed of developing programs.
  •  Minimize user’s effort to botain information from computer.
  •  Reduce errors while writing programs.
 
Merits:
  •  Programmer need not to think about the procedure of the program. So, programming is much easier.
Demerits:
  • It is easier but needs higher processor and larger memory.
  •  It needs to be translated therefore its execution time is more.
 
c) Natural language (5GL)
Natural language are stil in developing stage where we could write statrments that would look like normal sentences.
 
Merits:
  •  Easy to program.
  • Since, the program uses normal sentences, they are easy to understand.
  • The programs designed using 5GL will have artificial intelligence (AI).
  • The programs would be much more interactive and interesting.
 
Demerits:
  • It is slower than previous generation language as it should be completely translated into binary code which is a tedious task.
  • Highly advanced and expensive electronic devices are required to run programs developed in 5GL. Therefore, it is an expensive approach.
 
                         

 
 

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Adventures In English Vol I

ADVENTURES ENGLISH FOUR LEVELS

Unit One:Introduction
1.PIANO
 
Unit Two :Ancient Tales
2.YUDHISTHIRA’S WISDOM
3.THE BRAVE LITTLE PARROT
4.KING DAVID’S CRIME
5.IF NOT HIGHER
6.PHAEDO
7.ASTYAGES’ REVENGE 
 
Unit Three:Education
8.THE LIBRARY CARD
9.WHY GO TO UNIVERSITY?
10
 
Unit Four:Animal Stories
11.A FIGHT BETWEEN A LION AND A CROCODILE
12.SHEP’S HOBBY
13.STICKEEN
14.THE PARROT IN A CAGE
 
Unit Five:Television
15.THE WRETCHED STONE
16.Great Scott! Gadzooks!
17.CURBING THE ONE-EYED MONSTER
18.TEACHING IN THE TELEVISION CULTURE  
 
Unit Six:Crosscultural Bridges
19.MARRIAGE IS A PRIVATE AFFAIR
20.THE CABULIWALLAH  
 
Unit Seven:Anthropology
21.THE SAVAGE MALE

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THE SAVAGE MALE

 THE SAVAGE MALE:

The-Savage-Male
 
  Literal Comprehension:

The Yanomamo is one of the most aggressive , war loving and male oriented societies in the world.The body of adult males or females are covered with the wounds and scars.Wives have to obey their husbands without any question.In the chest pounding duels, the guest hit on the chest of the host with fist as hard as he can.But later the host also hits the guest back on the chest.The more one receives, the more one can hit back.In the side slapping duel, the opponent hits with the open hands just bellow the ribs.In the club fight, the competitor sticks on the head with a pole.The spear fight is the most dangerous.The fight against the relatives and enemies is quite common.The alliance of the Yanomamo depends on the military power. They pass most of time by fighting.

INERPRETATION:

This essay  clearly expresses the lifestyle of the Yanomamo people.It shows that their life is full of struggle. In order to survive they have to keep on fighting.This passage shows the relation between male and female in the male dominated society. The American Indian tribesman also known as Yanomamo believes on the male supremacy. Through this passage the writer presents the views of two different male and female writers who commonly consider the complete violation of women in the fierce group of people. The beatings and sufferings from men are considered as the sing of love for women. The character and body image of the writer shows the complete differentiation from the normal groups of people.

CRITICAL THINKING:

  • He has quoted chignon, a male researcher, whose attitude may be a bit biased to women and he has also quoted the views of Judith Sapiro, a female researcher. Thus the writer has tried to give a balance view in this essay.
  • However some question arise:
  • Do such societies still exist on the face of the earth?
  • Why don’t human right activists intervene in such societies?
  • Do women really expect atrocities from their husbands there?

ASSIMILATION:

 By reading this assay I have come to know many things about male oriented society. In such societies, women and girls are always abused.I become sad when I imagine the life of the Yanomamo people, especially women who always face violence.

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The Cabuliwallah | Four Levels | Adventures In English Vol

The Cabuliwallah|Four Levels

 

 

 
 
Literal Comprehension:
 A Cabuliwallah named Rahaman reached near the house of the writer. He was a peddler and sold seasonal goods. Mini, the five years old daughter of the writer, saw him. The writer was busy on writing his story. When Mini called him, he came towards her. When Cabuliwallah came towards her house, Mini got afraid and went to her mother.But, the writer called her and introduced with Rahaman to remove her fear from her mind. The Cabuliwallah gave nuts and raisins to her. Then, Cabuliwallah became a regular visitor to Mini’s home. They became good friends.Rahaman sold seasonal goods. Once he had sold a Rampuri sawl to a costumer on credit. But when he went to collect his money, the costumer didn’t give the money. It made Rahaman so angry that he stabbed the costumer with knife.Rahaman was charged for attempting murder and was sent to jail for long time. When he was released from the jail, he directly went to the writer’s house. There was a ceremony in the house. Mini was going to get married.At first, the writer didn’t allow him to see her. But Rahaman gave nuts and raisins for her and also showed a hand print of his daughter from his pocket, and told that he also has a daughter like Mini in his house. Understanding a father’s feeling towards his daughter, the eyes of the writer filled up with tears. He called Mini who was in wedding dress.Rahaman was surprised to see mini grown up. He remembered his own daughter and expressed the concerns about her. The writer got sentimental and offered hundred rupees to Rahaman by reducing some of the festivities like bands and electric lights. But the writer got happy to realize that he was helping a father to meet his daughter.
 
 Interpretation :
The writer may be trying to show the attitude of peoples towards the foreigners and poor peddler. Although the Cabuliwallah is very simple and honest, writer’s wife suspects him as a child lifter, also tries to cheat him by not paying his money.The story also shows the plight of the poor peopleThe story teaches us not to lose temper.
 This story also makes a strong case for humanity. The writer cuts off the wedding expenses and helps the Cabuliwallah.
 
Critical Thinking:
Although this story is full of the feeling of humanity, some ideas of the writer are skeptical.
  • Does a man leave his children freely with a stranger?
  • Does a peddler give things to others children freely every time?
  • Does the Cabuliwallah stab the costumer?
  • Can we find anyone who helps others by cutting off weeding expenses?

Assimilation:

Before reading this story, I also feared foreigners . But this story changed my attitude towards them. I know that all the people of the world are brothers and sisters.This story also grew a sense of help in my minds towards poor and needy people. Before reading this story I neglected such people. But the kindness of the writer towards the Cabuliwallah gave me a good lesson.

         

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Stickeen

  Stickeen-Four Levels

 

  stickeen_picture_book_cover                                              Author:John Muir
                                                                                                          

                                              
Literal Comprehension:

In the summer of 1880 the narrator John Muir was exploring alska region with his friend Mr.Young.Mr. Young brought a dog with him named Stickeen which was given by some Iris people to Mr.Young’s wife.The dog was so small like a little baby.The narrator didn’t like the idea of taking the dog with them as it was very small but after the huge request of his friend he takes the dog Stickeen to  icy cold region of Alaska. The creature proves to be a interesting company in the journey. It always followed the narrator even leaving its own master. It never complains. It did not love anyone and did not allow anyone to do so. It did not leave the narrator when he was making the most measurable journey in his life. That day he left the comp early in the raring morning with breakfast in his pocket. The dog some how follow him. They were walking in the snow. There were many crevasses on the way. The narrator crossed them carefully but the dog was moving like the flying cloud. It did not notice any danger. After reaching the end, they were returning to the camp. On the way they were trapped on the island surrounded by crevasses (holes). The only way to cross it was Sliver Bridge. The narrator cut notches (V shape holes) on the bridge. After he crossed the bridge, he again had to cut the holes at the other end to climb up. After he reached the other side he called the dog. But it did not come because it had wisely sensed the danger. When the writer repeatedly threatened to leave it there, it very carefully crossed the bridge. And afterwards it was so happy that it cried and danced and dashed. From that day on, it likes to be a close to the narrator. It might have thought that the narrator was its god
 

Interpretation:

This story might be trying to tell us about the human and animals relationship.It also tells that experience teaches us more than any thing else. The dog Stickeen changed completely after it successfully cross the silver bridge and save its life. It may also be interpreted to mean that there are many things which we find in animals and human beings equally. Friendship and gratitude are equally found in animals.
 

Critical Thinking:

This beautiful story has many points which are normally unacceptable to us. 
  • Why do people explore such remote place by putting their lives in danger? 
  • Why the Stickeen followed the narrator instead of his master?
  • Don’t they die of cold when they are wet in the icy cold region? Otherwise this story is really impressive. It makes us feel as if we are with the writer making the journey.

Assimilation:

After reading this story I came to know so many things about Alaska. I also learned that beauty in nature and danger are interwoven that experience makes one perfects is true even in the case of animals.
 

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ASTYAGES REVENGE | Four Levels | Adventures In English Vol I

asASTYAGES REVENGE

Author:Herodotus



LITERAL COMPREHESION:
Astyages, the king of medes saw in his dream  that his daughter’s urine flooded the whole Asia. Then she was married to a Persian. Again the king in his dream saw that out of his daughter’s private part, t grew a vine covering all Asia. After consulting the dream interpreter, he called back his daughter from Persia. She was imprisoned because the majai had told the king that his grandchild would become a king in his palace. When she gave birth to a son, the king called his most faithful officer, Harpagus, and asked his to expose the child. He also warned him not to give this task to anyone. But Harpagus did not like to kill the royal child. He sent for the king’s shaphard mitradutes and instructed him this task. Mitradutes expose his own dead child as a royal child. And he brought up the royal child as his own. Once in a play in their village this child was made king and he punished the boy of Astyger’s officer. Then this child and the sharphert were taken to the court. The king came to know that it was his own grandchild, and Harpagus was asked to send his son to the palace. In first the king gave harguse his son’s place to eat. And thus the king took revenge on Harpagus for disobeying the royal order, later the king sent his grandson, Syrus to his parent’s house in Persia because the Majai had told him that the would no longer became the king in his place
 
 
INTERPRETATION:
This story might be tying to tell us that the rulers do anything to sustain their power and that politics regards neither blood nor relation. This story tell us that that suffering of the people where there is no freedom. This story may also be interpreted to mean that power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely.
 
 
CRITICAL THINKING:
The modern readers discharge with many things in this story.
  •  Is the king so merciless to expose his own child?
  • He could have imprisoned the child?
  •  Is a man so coward as Harpagus, who accept the anything the king does? If we think that this story gives a real picture of a past life, we may find if acceptable.
 
 
ASSIMILATION:
By reading this story I came to know that man is basically a savage. He is so selfish that he does anything for his advantages. I also understood that politics is a dirty game. In politics anything the powerful person does is excusable the politician does not hesitate to use unfair means.

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KING DAVID’S CRIME | Four Levels | Adventures In English Vol I

davidKING DAVID’S CRIME| Four Levels | Adventures In English Vol I

 
Literal Comprehension:

As king, David was in a position to give orders and know that they would be carried out. When David saw Bathsheba, he was attracted to her because “the woman was very beautiful.” (2 Samuel 11:2) Bathsheba’s husband Uriah was away from home when this happened, fighting with King David’s troops against the enemy Ammonites.King David manipulated Uriah’s orders, bringing him home from the battle in hopes that he would spend time with Bathsheba so that the pregnancy would appear to be his. When Uriah refused to visit his home while his fighting companions were away from theirs. Finally, King David sent Uriah back to the battle, giving him a letter to be delivered to Joab, the commander. The letter read, “Set Uriah in the forefront of the hardest fighting, and then draw back from him, that he may be struck down, and die.” As commander of the troops, Joab should have been the one to decide the placement of troops. King David’s specific orders for the placement of one particular fighter ignored Joab’s strategic plans, forcing Joab to place Uriah in an unsupportable position to cover the king’s indiscretion with Bathsheba. The only reason for the crime against Uriah was King David’s need to hide his crime against Uriah’s wife, Bathsheba.
 
Interpretation:
This story might be trying to tell us that every one is the victim of passion. The rulers use their special power and enjoy it, but other persons suppress this desire. It may also be interpreted to mean that every is excusable in politics. The king is free to do what ever he likes. But an ordinary citizen is punished if he or she does not helps rulers to satisfy their whims.
 
Critical Thinking:
When I read this story, I had wrong impression of the Bible. Aren’t their other gods’ characters in the story of Bible?  Does king David stand for a good king? If he is a good king, what are the other ruler’s views? If we read this story as a political story regardless of morality, we can appreciate it. It truly describes human weakness. Even the king is not free from passion.
 
Assimilation:
This story has help me to understand myself better. It also taught me that I should not follow the example of a great person if his action is bad. Absolute power corrupts the leadership of the rulers. If the rulers are corrupt the whole society decay. Now I know why my country has not improved. Immoral and undemocratic politician have used their power for their personal benefits, not for the development of the country. There for the condition of my country becoming worse every day.

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Teaching In The Television Culture

Teaching In The Television Culture

Author-Girgus And Tichi

 
Television
 
 
 
 
 
 
Literal Comprehension:

When English teacher learn that their students were born in the house where the television was always on and when they consider TV at the park, they become worried about their students. They like a anti-TV tale in which the main character Lennie, addicted to TV, later things that TV people are not real. In the beginning of the TV era (age) many critics thought that TV was responsible for lowering the quality of students and people in generation. They supposed that people would be less educated after a decade (10 years time) or so. The critics did not support when TV was used for educational purpose. In reality, today’s students were brought up with TV which plays an important role in their lives. Actually TV does not cause addiction. The viewers are not concentrated in one particular program. There are commercial and TV serials being broadcast alternately. With the remote control, many stations can be viewed alternately. Moreover there is an interaction between the real world and the TV world. A viewer is a traveler, who goes from one world to another. Homework and TV can be handling at the same time.
 
Interpretation:
This assay might be trying to tell us that TV is not as harmful as people in the past considered it to be. It has become a part of modern life. This assay has also presented a new theory of perception (learn, knowledge) which stressed that it is possible to group so many things at the same time from various sources.
 
Critical Thinking:
This assay has presented the modern situation realistically. It has put forward the idea of past generation, who considered TV harmful and later on it has beautifully presented a new approach of perception. Whenever we learn we can get so many things from different sources. It is possible to write a letter and to watch the news on the TV at the same time.
 
Assimilation:
When I read this assay I understood how some of my friends solve their math’s problem when their radio is on. They can do both things at the same time. Perhaps modern generation is smarter than the earlier generation. They grasp whatever they need from various sources.

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Great Scott! Gadzooks!

Great Scott! Gadzooks!-Four Levels

Roald-Dahl                                               Author-Roald Dahl   
 
                                                             

Literal Comprehension:
We should not allow our children to go near the Television set. If possible we should not install it at all. In nearly every home child watch TV until their eyes get tired. They sit and watch TV until they are spellbound and absolutely drunk with very bad things. We allow them to watch TV because they will not fight and do naughty things and they allow us to do our work freely. But we have never supposed that TV will kill their senses and imagination, that they do not understand the imaginary world and that they can not think at all. If you take the set away, they will be unhappy at first and then they will start reading good books as children in the past would do.
 
Interpretation:
This poem might be trying to tell us that, the TV set has prevented children from reading books. It may also be interpreted to mean that parents are solely responsible for spoiling their children. they have thought of their convenience alone. They have never studied the bad inflect of TV programs on their children
 
Critical Thinking:
This poem has beautifully presented the trouble of every parent. It is true that children don’t read any good books a part from their text book. But the poem has ignored the advantage children get by watching TV. When classic was televised they will be interested in watching more such serious. When they don’t get such serials they borrow classics from the library and read them. More over TV helps them to imaging much more clearly. How does it kill their imagination Del.?
 
Assimilation:
This poem has help me to understand why children passed most of their time before their TV set. It hypnotizes them. I also came to know why the younger generation thinks differently. They have taken in so many good as well as bad things from different sources including TV. Modern culture has been changing rapidly because of television.

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A Fight Between a Lion And a Crocodile

A Fight Between a Lion and a Crocodile-Four Levels

Lion-and-Crocodile-300x234                                                       Author-H.Rider Haggard
 
 

Literal Comprehension:

It was late evening. The narrator and his friend being to sleep drowsily on the bank of the river. They could hear different kind of roaring sound. Job told them to look to the water toward them. They sow the lion’s signing eyes as one of was 15 feet away. Leo fired at the lions and see died. A fully grown male was to step behind her. Suddenly there was a rush and disturbance of the water. The lion uttered a roar. A crocodile had cut him by the leg. The lion pull the crocodile on to the bank and clawed its head, and one of its eyes was turn. Both of them were struggle fiercely. The lion’s body up to the hive was in the crocodile’s jaws. The lion clawed the crocodile’s throat a part. The lion felt on the crocodile’s back and died . After a while the crocodile also died.
 

Interpretation:

This story might be trying to tell us that there are many more wonderful things in the world of nature. All living things are closely related to their environment, and are equally important in their own place. The lion is the king of the jungle, but the crocodile can defeat him in the water, which is not the kingdom of the lion.
 

Critical Thinking:

There are many things in the story, which seem unbelievable.
  •  How can people try to fall as sleep when they hear the rearing sound?
  •  How can people feel safe in such a place?
  •  Can a crocodile is strong enough to grip a lion? 
Since this story seems to be realistic, we have to accept many things without questions.
 

Assimilation:

After reading this story I am fully convince that all animals are equally important in the eco –system. Every animals has its importance in its own place. But if it goes to the place to other animals, it will be defeated. There for every living things identifies its habit act and lives accordingly.

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